Saturday, August 31, 2019

Jurlique Marketing Essay

1.0 Executive summary The main purpose of this business report is to review the appropriateness of Jurlique cosmetic products for the Australian target market. The key findings are: Australia is a huge market for cosmetic and toiletry industry, while it is full of competition due to the zero duty on American cosmetics; Jurlique is a well established brand for most Australia customers, however, it still needs unique selling points other than natural ingredient to expand its market share. This is mostly based on the product research and development. 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Purpose This report sets out to review the product for a target segment. 2.2 Scope This report first describes the overall cosmetic industry, the market share of Jurlique’s skin care products and the growth trend. Then the macro and micro-environmental analysis are conducted before the detailed description of the products category. Following the target segmentation, some recommendations will be made. 2.3 Methodology This report is created based on the theories from the textbook and the secondary data from websites. In addition, graphs and tables are used to assist the specific analysis. 2.4 Assumption and limitation During the research, some information can not be accessed, however, the information can be found from others as the official website which is formal and perusable to do reference. 3.0 Description of the industry 3.1 Market size and market share According to IBIS World (2010), cosmetics and toiletries industry are based on a solid foundation, with a booming prospect. He also forecasts that global cosmetic industry will embrace an inspiring growth at an average annual rate of 3.2%, within the period to 2012-2013. Graph 1: Global cosmetic industry performance and forecast (Data source: IBIS World 2010) As a key player in the natural cosmetics and skincare industry, Australian-owned Jurlique Company is a well-deserved market leader. It manufactures and distributes a range of skin care and aromatherapy products as well as herbal medicines. Through multi-channel distribution network, the company enters into 20 different countries, where about 60 company-owned concept stores and 5000 or so Jurlique-branded retail outlets are established (Official Website, 2012). Plus, department stores, pharmacies and health food stores, as well as aroma-therapy clinics and beauty salons are also the sales channel of the company’s 75% products. The differentiation in products themselves and diversification in marketing channels both contribute to the company’s profit margins, which are thought to be about 30%, and annual sales, which are estimated to exceed AU$100 million (RAPS, 2011). 3.2 Macro-environment 3.2.1 Overall cosmetic consumption trend Graph2: Total market sale of Australian cosmetic industry Source: Australia Bureau of Statistics The cosmetic and beauty industry has experienced a constant growth the whole world, and Australia is not an exception (see above graph). The Australia cosmetics and toiletries market value is in order of US$1.5 billion, with imports products occupying about half of that (U.S Commercial Service). This suggests that the domestic cosmetic brands are facing relatively fierce competition from cosmetic brands abroad. In terms of market share of cosmetic industry in Australia, the U.S is still maintaining about 30 percent market share (U.S Commercial Service). There are several reasons for this. The U.S is well known for its large proportion of investment in cosmetics research and development; Owing to the Free Trade Agreement between Australia and the United States, the U.S enjoys zero general import duty on cosmetics and toiletries exported to Australia. 3.2.2 Demographic factor The cosmetics and toiletries industry in Australia is closely associated with the people’s paying increasing attention to personal appearance, both for women and men. The emergence of an aging population in Australia, along with a raised awareness of health and environmental issues, stimulated to a certain extent the consciousness of the importance of products that prolong a youthful appearance. For baby boomer generation which is experiencing life changes brought by aging, they have shown increasing interests in cosmetics and toiletries, not only to enhance their appearance but also for other reasons. A simple example is that they use foundation with treatment ingredients to protect their skin against harmful UV rays, and to help a variety of skin problems. 3.2.3 Cultural changes As the consumer attitude gradually changes, people are more in favor of the natural and safe products in cosmetic market. Australia consumers are not exception. They respected green-added cosmetics, namely, they are increasingly in pursuit of natural, pollution-free cosmetics with no chemicals added. Consequently, the products of chemical-free will gain competitive advantages in Australian cosmetic market to meet the consumer’s psychological needs for green, organic skin care products. 3.3 Micro-environment 3.3.1 Organization Jurlique is a Sydney-based cosmetic company, boasting its skin care products, all of which are made in the most natural way. Funded in 1985 by chemist and also a doctor-Jurgen Klein, the beauty company was characterized by farm system, which makes the fact possible that all ingredients are cultivated and processed in the Adelaide Hills, and then distributed in Australia and abroad (Pola Orbis, 2011). The company’s mission is to generate sustainability and create mutual benefit between people and nature, with its slogan â€Å"Purest Skin Care Products on Earth through Nature, Science and Innovation†. Jurlique, with its headquarters in Mount Barker in the Adelaide foothills, has planted good names for its natural and chemical free products in Australia. On November 30, 2011, Jurlique International announces acquisition by POLA Orbis, which is the fourth leading cosmetic company in Japan and has been developing its business model around the cosmetics industry with a recurring theme of â€Å"beauty and health† since its founding in 1929. This acquisition makes Jurlique brand well positioned along with a strong presence and compelling momentum in key strategic markets, with a focus on Asia, the Americas and the home market Australia. Table 1: Changes in Jurlique shares held by POLA as a result of the Acquisition Source: POLA’s Share Purchase Agreement 3.3.2 Customers Customers of Jurlique are mainly female who pay a certain attention to their skin condition and are willing to buy skin care products at a reasonable price. In addition, customers of Jurlique need to be aware of the importance of natural ingredient for their skin. As spa gradually gains popularity, Jurlique’s target consumer will be expanded to whoever enjoys a natural and comfortable spa. 3.3.3 Publics Rising concern can be noted by Australian consumers of any cosmetic product regarding health and safety. Greater attention is also being given to natural products in cosmetics. Innovative beauty salon products that incorporate premium and organic ingredients are given warm welcome. This can explain that sales of Jurlique products using natural ingredients are showing steady growth. 3.3.4 Competitions Dominated by industrial players like Luxus, P&G and Unilever in Australian cosmetic and toiletry industry, the main high-end competitive brands in the country include well-established world-famous brands such as Lancome, Estee Lauder, Clinique, Shiseido, Christian Dior, Giorgio Armani, Bobbi Brown and Clarins. Middle end brands contain Revlon, Max Factor, L’Oreal and Olay (U.S. Commercial Service). In addition, newer brands from Japan and Korea are very popular among Australian young girls such as DHC, Fancl, HABA, Mioggi, Lanegie, Skin Food. 4.0 Products Jurlique products can be classified into six categories by the company’s official website. Table2: Jurlique product line (from Official Website) Product line Products detailed by category Skin care line cleansers, deep cleansing, refreshing, recovering, renewing, moisturizing, nurturing, special care, eye and lip care, tools and accessories Body care hand care, body lotion, body oils, shower gels Hair care shampoo, hair conditioners Baby care hypo-allergenic and pH balanced baby care products Essential oils comprises pure essential oils, essential oil blends, and carrier oils Seasonal offers comprises seasonal sets of products containing specific blends Within all these excellent natural products, Herbal Recovery Gel needs to be mentioned more. Belonging to skin care category, it is a light gel concentrate for day and night, which contains natural antioxidants and is suitable for all skin conditions, including oily and problem skin. It works deeply to strengthen and restore hydration, which can help maintain ideal skin moisture balance. 4.1 Three levels of the products 4.1.1 Core level Core level of a product represents the basic consumption benefit consumers can get from the product. Namely, it is the function or efficiency of the product. For skin care products made by Jurlique, they can not only meet the very basic requirements of target audience for better their skin condition  with its natural ingredients, but they also can realize the process in a sustainable manner. 4.1.2 Actual level Apart from the natural and high-quality characteristics, Jurlique products also have a mature packaging chain, which contains three sets of processes: primary packaging, secondary packaging and tertiary packaging (Jurlique International, 2011). All products produced are packed into tertiary packaging for shipment from production to logistics, and from logistics to distributors or direct to consumers. The tertiary packaging utilized is common throughout the supply chain where possible. Just like the packaging, labeling considerations will continue to express the green concept. For example, the use of relevant recyclable symbols such as the â€Å"green dot† and inclusion of the material identification will serve as an important tool in marketing strategy. 4.1.3 Augmented level Customers who buy Jurlique products can enjoy comfortable service from the company. Jurlique has its mature online service and various distribution channels. Products sold through every channel will be delivered timely. In addition, anyone who is interested in this brand can sign up for emails, and become a Jurlique insider. The insiders can get the professional advice in terms of skin care and also free gifts from the company. 5.0 Target segment 5.1 Demographic segmentation The majority of target customers Jurlique are females, specifically Generation X and Baby Boomers who are looking for beauty products which can help reduce wrinkles, better skin dark and contain natural or pure ingredients (Phosphagenics Newsletter, 2009). In Australia, Women between age 25 and 39 staying workplace have the strongest purchase power. They are  value and quality conscious, prepared to pay a little more for a prestige product that works. For those female seeking natural and quality products, Jurlique is undoubtedly a perfect choice whose claims match product performance. 5.2 Behavioral segmentation Different people seek different benefits from Jurlique products, and according to the product itself and the behavioral habits of Australian consumer, the market can be segmented into: 1. Single brand loyalty: it is of difficulty to break the previous loyalty for a certain brand, however, it this group have faith in Jurlique, the loyalty will last long. 2. Multiple brands loyalty: this group is willing to try new brands, but the loyalty can not be assured. 3. No brand loyalty: this group tends to be price sensitive or efficiency sensitive. 5.3 Geographic segmentation In geographical version, the whole Australian market can be segmented into several divisions. The five biggest cities in Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide should be the major target markets which all have advantages of large amount of working female and strong purchase power. Cities with more than a hundred thousand populations in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania etc will be the second largest target markets for Jurlique. The remaining cities with less population but relatively big purchase power should also be considered. 5.4 Psychographic: Based on people’s life style and value, the market can be segmented  psychologically. The research concerning people’s life style should be based on AOI: 1. Activities: this refers to where and when people use their time on skin care. 2. Interests: how much attention would people pay to the change of skin condition. 3. Opinion: this refers to what people think of the brand. 6.0 Key needs The mainstream trend in Australian cosmetic and toiletry industry is that consumers are willing to pay the higher price for those technologically advanced products because they perceive the ingredients to be expensive, uniquely manufactured based on intensive research and develop. Therefore, the innovative initiative of Jurlique based on its laboratory R&D is in need. In addition, market for color cosmetics, hair care products and beauty salon based products unsaturated to a certain degree. This is mainly for the reason that those products are not the mainstream business scope for the major competitors from the U.S and France. Consequently, Jurlique could stretch its product line or emphasis the manufacture and market capture of those products. 7.0 Recommendations 1. Adjust the shift of distributional channels in Australia The retailing of cosmetics and toiletries in Australia has experienced a remarkable change in recent years. Supermarkets are beginning to play a major role in selling cosmetics and toiletries, replacing traditional retailers and pharmacies (Market Overview, 2010). Major supermarkets such as Coles, Safeway and Woolworths have become the sites where 45 percent of cosmetic products are sold in Australia. Pharmacies and cosmetic retailers are showing more and more presence in cosmetic market. Jurlique should take this change into account when it come to adjusting marketing strategy. 2. Professional technologic certification shows its increasing importance It should be realized that natural or organic ingredients are no more than distinctive selling points which add value to the products. Consumers today tend to expect assurance through product certification, especially for new or unfamiliar products, just as Jurlique for Australian consumer. Therefore, it is highly recommended that Jurlique obtain professional certification from authorized certifiers to enhance product credibility. 8.0 References IBIS World (2010). Cosmetic and Toiletry Retailing in Australia, Melbourne: Arna Richardson, Exporter Guild, Australian, Organic Market, P11(ix), April 2011 Jurlique official website. Retrieved from: U.S Commercial Service. 2010, Retrieved from: RAPS (2011). Beauty environmental scan. Phosphagenics Newsletter. (2009). Retrieved from: Asia-Pacific Cosmetics and Toiletries Market Overview. 2010 Pola Orbis (2011). POLA ORBIS HOLDINGS enters into a Share Purchase Agreement to acquire all outstanding shares of Jurlique International Pty Ltd[R].2011. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (2011). Export guide: Organics and green market in Australia. Jurlique International (2011). Australian packaging covenant action plan. Retrieved from:

Friday, August 30, 2019

Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy Essay

Description: Preferred language style: English (U.S.). Each student will complete a 15–20 page paper in which they will discuss current issues facing adolescents today and how a counselor should deal with these areas. The paper must be in APA style with a minimum of 15 current references (within five years). This paper is to be 15-20 pages in length, and that means the body of the paper itself -not the title page, abstract, etc†¦The topic is Adolescent Sexuality: PREVENTION OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY. Adolescent Sexuality: PREVENTION OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY Name: School: University: Adolescent Sexuality: Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy Abstract: One of the commonest problems faced by teens in the several nations, has been the issue of teenage pregnancy. Although, the rates of teenage pregnancy are decreasing, there are still several problems associated with the issue. As teenage pregnancy can be a huge social issue and most of them do not want a child, such pregnancies can create a negative impact on the quality of life of the teenage couple. The rise in teenage pregnancy has been due to several issues including faster onset of maturity, greater occasions of premarital sex, etc. Besides, teenage pregnancy is usually not preferred due to several issues such as greater rates of defects in the developing child, greater amount of maternal problems, social concerns, difficulties of the mother in bringing up the child, etc. In all cases, efforts should be made to support the pregnant teenage girl rather than ignore her. A teenage pregnancy prevention program should look into several areas that encompass teenagers including career development, education, STD’s, contraception, counseling, drug abuse, women’s health, etc. It should involve several parties including the parents, politicians, social workers, child and women groups, NGO’s, etc. The two techniques that are utilized frequently include abstinence and contraception. Studies have shown that school-based prevention program were successful in decreasing the rates of pregnancy amongst teens. Efforts should be on to include the entire society in the teenage pregnancy prevention program. There are several factors that may cause the teenager to indulge in irresponsible sexual behavior including social factors, psychological factors, family factors, etc. The counselors should always try to include the parents, family and the entire society in the prevention programs. If abstinence-based programs seem to be difficult, then the contraception-based programs may seem to be effective. The counselor may have to follow a holistic approach in solving the problems of the teens. The counselor should determine the characteristics of the teens and accordingly use these characteristics to motivate them further. Teens whose academic performance is superior may seem to gain more from pregnancy prevention programs. The teenage pregnancy program should also look at various issues that surround teenagers including STD’s, contraceptives, drug abuse, careers, higher education, etc. It is also important that the teenage pregnancy prevention program helps pregnancy teenage girls to quality life without any problems. They should be taught how to handle the social and family pressure that may develop resulting from unwanted pregnancy. It is important that the teenage program involve the teenagers. The US HHS and the CDC have shown a lot of interest in the teenage pregnancy programs in recent years. In developing nations, the rates of teen pregnancy are on the rise. On the other hand, in the developed nations such as the US and Canada, the rates of teenage pregnancies are decreasing due to greater awareness levels. In the US, about 97 per every 1000 teenage girls (usually between the ages of 15 to 19 years) get pregnant each year. Most of these pregnancies (about three-quarters) are usually not wanted. During the years 1999-2000, the rates of teenage pregnancies have dropped. The rates of teenage pregnancies are about 28 %, and the rate of teenage childbirths is about 21 %. There may be several reasons for teenage pregnancies (Weiss, 2000 & Huberman, 2005). These include: – 1. Girls are maturing faster, now between the ages of 12 to 13 years. 2. Teenage sex is very common. Before the girl reaches adulthood in the US, about 80 % of them would have had sex. 3. Teenagers are less likely to take precautions in order to prevent pregnancy. 4. Teenagers are not aware of the reproductive problems that can develop during the pregnancy period (Weiss, 2000). Teenage pregnancy can have serious consequences and implications (Weiss, 2000). These include: – 1. Several problems such as miscarriage, neonatal death, stillborn baby, maternal sickness, etc are higher in teenage girls than in pregnant women. 2. Children born from teenage girls have several problems including developmental problems, congential defects, low birth weight, neglect, child abuse, etc. 3. Socially, teenage pregnancy is not accepted. 4. The teenage mother is more likely not to take care of the child. She is more likely to smoke, consume excessive alcohol, subject the baby to abuse, etc. 5. The government has to spend a huge amount to solve the problems related to teenage pregnancies. These include public health problems, housing, assistance, childcare, legal issues (Weiss, 2000). Teenage pregnancy prevention programs should have a specific objectives and goals. Studies have shown that from previous teenage pregnancies that the Socio-economic life, standard of living, etc, would be very poor following teenage pregnancy. As it is one of the major public health concerns, the politicians should take up the issue on a priority basis. It is important that the teenage parents be supported rather than being ignored. The main goals of any teenage pregnancy program are to: – 1. To bring down the teenage pregnancy rates by at least 50 % by the year 2010 (this is an objective of the Healthy People 2010). 2. To include the teenagers themselves in the program so that the initiatives made come from this group of the population itself. Teenagers should be educated, trained and employed in the teenage welfare programs. Special emphasis should be made on focusing on the teenage pregnancy prevention. 3. The teenage pregnancy prevention programs should also focus on other areas including drug abuse, gynecological issues, career development, counseling, etc. This would ensure that all-round the teenager is given attention. 4. Voluntary services should be oriented towards understanding teenage behavior and changing them in order to bring about better attitudes and practices. 5. Several stakeholders including the politicians, government, judiciary, social welfare groups, public, women’s groups, etc, should be involved in these programs. 6. Efforts should be organized at the national, regional and the local levels in order to help teenagers to develop appropriate attitudes and behaviors towards teenage pregnancies. 7. Adoption of better prevention techniques such as sex education, contraception, avoiding the risk factors, etc. 8. Supporting the teenagers and their parents so as to help them develop a good future. Also, to ensure that the teenagers get appropriate help in problematic situations. 9. Ensuring that the pregnant teen mother is given special attention during the pregnancy period. This would ensure that both the mother and the developing child is healthy and is able to get appropriate medical attention. Many may think that in a teenage pregnancy prevention program, the issues relating to the pregnancy period need not be considered. However, this should be an area of focus, as it would help to prevent further problems (Blank, 2003). The Government has begun to include teenage pregnancy prevention programs as one of the priority areas for the social cause. Initially, the government had a lot of problems associated with these programs. However, following a few initial hiccups, these programs have turned out to benefit the teenagers and their families in developing a fruitful life. One of the programs meant for teenage pregnancy prevention program is the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006 or SHPPS 2006. It is basically performed to study the various health programs and policies conduced at the classroom level. in the year 2000, about 45 % of the states belonging to various middle schools taught about pregnancy prevention, and in the year 2006 it increased to about 59%. With relation to high schools, this figure similar. The number of hours spent teaching on pregnancy prevention also varied in high, middle and elementary schools. In high schools it was 3.5 hours, 2.7 in middle schools and 1.3 in elementary schools. In high schools, 2.0 teachers were required to teach about pregnancy prevention in the year 2000, which increased to 2.6 in the year 2006. About 38 % of the districts and about 20 % of the states provided about pregnancy prevention services. These services were either provided on a one to one basis or on a group basis. About 28.4 % of the district authority provided for services on the local property rather than on the schools property. About 97 % of the schools provided for pregnancy prevention. About 28.7 % of the schools provided for pregnancy prevention programs through arrangement from outside organizations. The number of staff members who received training also varied. About 30.6 % of the staff had training on pregnancy prevention, 17 % had training on prenatal care and 14 % had training in childcare, 2 years before the program started. 20 % of the psychiatric service staff had training in pregnancy prevention and 13 % had training in child care (SHPPS, 2006). Currently, there are several issues, which could be responsible for promoting teenage pregnancy prevention. Many of the teenage prevention programs may not be successful, as they do not involve the society as a whole. The program strategy may be such that it lacks some amount of reality leading to a failure. Hence, the social blanket needed for the program to be a success should be greater. Furstenberg considers that the conflict present on sexuality needs to be resolved especially the cultural and the political tendencies. As the attitudes and behavior of the society towards teenage pregnancies has not been corrected so far, it may be difficult to control teenage pregnancy. Hence, methods adopted to prevent pregnancy can be adopted. The intervening variables include: – 1. Controlling age of entry to the sexual unions – There has been a dramatic increase in the number of teenagers who have sex before the marriage. In the 1950’s and the 1960’s, this figure was about 10 %, and in the 1970’s and the 1980’s this figure was 20 %. There could be many causes for this including peer pressures, lack of pressure from the home, trend in dating, etc. There has been also a rise in the cases of venereal diseases affecting the teenage population. Many a times, the teenage population is not exposed to family or parental discussions on sex and childbearing. This has created even greater number of problems. Family discussions usually create healthy practices and attitudes. Studies conducted in schools on teenage boys and girls demonstrated that family teaching had a great role. When family opposition was present without any kind of support or understanding, the teenagers indulged in sexual activity. One important fact to note was that it was not always true when there was an increase in the teenage sexual activity, there would be an increase in the teenage pregnancy rates. In the year 1979, there was an increase by about 50 % in the rates of sex in teenage girls. However, there was also a rise in 50 % in the contraceptive use. Studies have shown that use of contraceptives always did not help to prevent pregnancy, and hence something more was required (Kohli, 2007). 2. Contraception use – Studies conducted in the US and the Western European region demonstrated that even though the teenage sexual activity rates were similar in both the regions, the rate of teenage pregnancy rates were higher in the US compared to the Western European region. One of the main reasons as to why teenage girls become pregnant is that they do not stress upon the need to use a contraceptive. Some teenagers feel that they are not sexually active and feel that they would not need a contraceptive. Teenagers would also not like to make long-term decisions about their life. They may behave in an immature and irresponsible way due to their young age. Teenagers may always feel shy of purchasing a contraceptive. They may also not consider the risk of getting pregnant as real and may not use their knowledge to help prevent the pregnancy. Many girls fear that they would be losing a boy friend due to rejection if they did not have sex with him. This type of fear has lead to several problems. In true fact, it has been seen that girls usually prefer long-term relationships and boys prefer short-term relationships. Most boys would have no idea of contraception and pregnancy, and would usually leave it up to the female to prevent herself from getting pregnant (Kohli, 2007). 3. Use of abortion 4. Use of adoption Psychological factors associated with teenage pregnancy – Most of the teenage girls do not intent to have a child during their teenage period due to a variety of factors including the need to grow and develop academically, social factors, etc. Only a small proportion of teenagers would like to have an infant and improve their mission in life. The bringing of a child would also increase the relationship and the bonding to their boyfriends. Teenage pregnancy would also improve the chances of becoming independent, stepping into their motherhood, etc. However, the psychological problems created by teenage pregnancy are more often negative. It creates a sense of low self-esteem. Teenagers who become pregnant may not be given the same amount of respect and esteem as before. This is mainly due to the engagement in sex. These psychological pressures would invariable lead to poor academic performances. Poor performance in academics may in turn create a lot of psychological pressure for the teenager and may lead to irresponsible sexual behavior. If the sexual behavior is responsible and if the child was intelligent and understanding, it was found that the academic record was also good (Kohli, 2007). Family Factors – Family communication holds a vital key in helping prevent teenage pregnancy. The mother and the daughter need to hold vital discussions on how should teenage pregnancy are prevented. The teenage girl would use contraception infrequently and incorrectly if not advised by the mother. In the other side, important discussions between the father and the son would hold the key to responsible sexual behavior of the male teenagers. The parents and the child needs to invariable discussion about sex-related issues. This would certainly prevent anything untoward from happening. Frequently, it was found that the sexual behavior of the parents did not have an important role to play in permitting the child to have sex. Sons were less likely to follow the parental advice on sex than the daughters. Parents, who were friendly and attentive towards their children, resulted in the teenagers becoming less sexually active. If the parents take up the issue of contraception and sexual activity with the teenager at a young age, then the chances of the child staying close to the parents is high. Studies have shown that even if the parents approves of the child’s sexual practice through non-verbal means, the chances of developing healthy sexual behavior was high. In traditional families, the chances of having a binding daughter were higher, than the son. If the mother was a homemaker, the chances of the daughter sticking to the mother’s advice were higher. It was found that in the males, peer involvement had an even greater role to play than family factors. This is because boys may not want to discuss any sexual issue with the parent and instead prefer to discuss it with the friends. Boys may only want to discuss sexual issues with individuals of the same age and belonging to the same sex. Any bad company would create irresponsible sexual behavior. On the other hand, when it comes to girls, they are more often affected by the advice of the male teenager than with the advice of their female friends. When a single parent existed at home, the chances of developing irresponsible sexual behavior was higher. Sexual abuse and problems in the family, was more likely to be responsible for undesired sexual behavior in the teen. The teenager was likely not to give importance to self. Teenager who previously suffered from certain mental disorders or those who were involved in crime were at a greater chance of becoming pregnant (Kohli, 2007). Social factors – Children belonging to certain social groups are more likely not to indulge in sexual activity or use contraception as a mean to prevent pregnancy. It is usually seen that in restrictive societies, the chances of becoming pregnant during the teenage period are lesser. This is due to the restrictions placed by the families on the child to stay away from sex. Socio-economic status also plays an important role in helping to prevent getting pregnant. Hispanics and other sexual minorities due to their lower Socio-economic backgrounds are less likely to receive sexual advice from home and from school. They may also lack medical facilities and contraception (Kohli, 2007). A counselor conducting teenage prevention programs should use various methods to prevent the teenage girl from becoming pregnant. Some of the most frequently utilized methods of preventing teenage pregnancy include use of contraception and abstaining from sex. The counselor needs to ensure that both these methods are used either alone or in combination with one another, depending on the situation (Kohli, 2007). Children who belong to societies, which are having strict sexual code, would like the teenagers not to indulge in sexual activity. There may pressures from the family, school and society for the teenager to abstain from sex. The teenagers may be told to delay all sexual relationships until marriage. In such a circumstance, the counsellor would have to create attitudes and behaviors in the teenager so that they would delay all sexual activity until adulthood. One of the laws developed in the year 1996 was the Welfare reform law and this gave birth to the development of the Abstinence education program. Federal funds were being utilized in such a program to counsel and educate the teenagers of premarital sex and the need to abstain from it. Every year about 50 million dollars was spent on the program. Several activities were a part of the program. The HRSA developed a community-based abstinence program in the year 2001. Federal funds were utilized to educate the public about premarital sex. They also conducted education programs for students between the ages of 12 to 18 years. More than 20 million dollars was being spend every year on such programs (Kohli, 2007 & USHHS, 2002). The counselor would have a role to play in addition to that of the family. He should work in close association with the family and the school-based activities. Frequently, the counselor would be advising the school of the increased need to have school-based sex education classes. Some parents may not want their children to have school-based sex education classes and instead prefer to give them advice personally. In such circumstances, it is the duty of the counselor to advise the parents of the importance of such activities. In teenagers it is found that abstinence-based program may be difficult to prevent them from indulging in sexual activity, but would definitely help to prevent them from indulging in sexual activity until the age of 18 years (Kohli, 2007 & USHHS, 2002d). As teenage pregnancy has multiple factors responsible, the program to be successful and effective needs to adopt a holistic approach to solve the problem. One of the issues that the counselor needs to emphasis on is the need to continue education and literary to a higher level. Teenagers having higher intellectual capacity are more likely to get motivated and continue with education on a longer term. Some teenagers may also like the issue of getting employed and standing on one’s own feet. It is found that such students are more likely to follow the advise of the counselor and respond. The counselor should continuously motivate the teenager to use contraceptive during sexual activities or if possible to abstain from sex (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006). The counselor should also use the family as a role model to ensure that the teenager adopts healthy sexual practices. The teenager should be convinced about the strong family ties that are present. They should be told to take their mother and father as role models and lead a life that is going to be constructive in the future. Students belonging to various colleges may have a lot of creativity housed within them. They would like to use this skill to build a future. This could also be used as a point on which further motivation can be performed (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006). The intervention performed should not be single measures as a number of factors are involved that are related to teenage pregnancy. Some counselors would utilize various psychotherapy techniques to help the teenagers to adopt healthy sexual practices. Some of the psychotherapy techniques that could be utilized included family therapy, group therapy, support groups, couple therapy, etc (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006). All the issues that encompass sex and teenage matters need to be sorted out in a teenage pregnancy prevention program. Some of these issues include HIV/AIDS, responsible sexual behavior, use of contraceptives, drug abuse, etc. The teenagers should be motivated to lead a fruitful and a productive life. Many teenagers may feel depressed and hopeless in case they fall pregnant. However, a counselor should also be available to tackle such situations and offer the teenagers a way out. The counselor would have to adopt a stand that would encourage the teenager. Some of the points over which the teenager could be encouraged include: – 1. Make the teenager understand that young blood could be utilized for constructive purposes. 2. Helps the teen to build a life filled with purpose and responsibility. 3. Building a very promising future. 4. Helping teenagers who have had previous pregnancies and abortions to lead a life filled with hope and quality (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006). However, this is not always the case with teenagers who have had previous pregnancies. Teenagers who have had previous pregnancies may be pressurized from various quarters. They may be forced to lead a life filled with poverty, misery, hopelessness and depression. The counselor should in such situations be available to uplift such teenagers to lead a quality life. The counselor should consider such teenagers to be at a high risk for depression and suicidal tendencies. He should be able to assess the presence of such risk and accordingly take measures to protect the teenager. Teenagers under the difficulties of life, require love and care. For this reason, they may indulge in sexual activities. However, the performance of such activities may result in a critical error leading to the female girl becoming pregnant. The counselor should provide hope and motivation for the teenager to lead a fruitful life (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006). One of the most effective programs when it comes to social issues such as teenage pregnancy, community-based approaches seems to be very superior. The US Health and Human Services is one organization that is supporting the use of community-based programs for the prevention of pregnancy amongst teenagers. They would be using various resources such as financial, human, supportive, infrastructure, material, etc, to perform various activities such as building partnerships, researching, monitoring, evaluating, planning, disseminating knowledge, etc (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, 2006 & US HHS, 2002). The CDC has taken the issue of teenage pregnancy prevention on a priority basis since the year 1995. The programs support various activities in order to help prevent teenage pregnancies. These include community actions, coordinated efforts, identify shortcomings, identifying and allocating resources, evaluating the project, etc. Several governmental and non-governmental would be taking part in such activities, including local, regional and federal (US HHS, 2002). Several other issues need to be considered in the teenage pregnancy prevention program. For the provision of reproductive health services, several health insurance options should be available to the teenagers (such as Medicaid and Medicare Services). Several of the State, Regional and Federal Public Health programs such as the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, etc are meant for adolescent health and to prevent pregnancy in young teenage girls. Teenagers should also have facilities to help them with several other issues such as drug abuse, alcohol abuse, legal issues, etc (US HHS, 2002). In a teenage pregnancy prevention program, during the implementation certain principles need to be adhered to: –  · The objectives, goals and the expected outcome of the program should be clearly defined.  · The mode by which these objectives are to be achieved need to be determined.  · Collaboration should exist between the governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and private organizations.  · The involvement of teens in the program.  · The activities and the content of the program performed should be attractive to the teens.  · All activities should be constructive in nature.  · Cultural activities and local resources would provide huge amount of benefits.  · Use of local volunteers and counselors would also help in the program.  · Long-term support should be provided to the teens in helping to carve out something constructive for the future.  · The two measures by which the program would be acting include abstinence and contraception. Abstinence can delay the interest in indulging in sexual activity by the teen. Contraception methods and techniques should be taught. Males should be encouraged to take up contraception use, as it is more convenient and reduces the load on the females.  · The programs should be developmentally appropriate.  · Decision-making skills and problem-solving methods should be taught to the teenagers.  · Several health services such as gynecological services, obstetrics services, adolescent health, pregnancy testing, prevention and treatment for STD’s, contraceptive counseling, etc. The health services should incorporated certain features including confidentiality, informed consent, flexibility in appointments, free services, etc. (Davies, 2007). References: ASPE-HHS (2007). â€Å"Involving Health Care Professionals in Teen Pregnancy Prevention.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from ASPE-HHS Web site: Blank, L., Goyder, E. & Peters, J. (2003). â€Å"Teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives in New Deal Communities.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from The University of Sheffield Web site. Center For Maternal And Child Health (2007). â€Å"Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Advocates for Youth Web site: Children’s Aid Society Carrera (2006). â€Å"Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Children’s Aid Society Carrera Web site: Connelly, M. T. & Inui, T. S. (2004). â€Å"Principles of Disease Prevention.† In: Braunwald, E., Fauci, A. S., Kasper, D. L., Hauser, S. L., Longo, D. L. and Jameson, J.L. (Eds) Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, New York: McGraw-Hill. Davis, L. (2007). â€Å"Components of Promising Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Advocates for Youth Web site: Huberman, B. (2005). â€Å"National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Month (NTPPM) Planning Guidebook.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Advocates of Youth Web site. Kohli, V. & Nyberg, K. L. (2007). â€Å"Teen Pregnancy Prevention through Education.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from California State University Web site. Ontario’s Maternal, Newborn and Early Child Development Resource Centre and the Sex Information and Education Council of Canada (2007). â€Å"Update report on Teen pregnancy prevention.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from OMNECD Web site: PCL (2007). â€Å"Unplanned Pregnancy Counselling.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from PCL Web site: SHPPS (2006). â€Å"Pregnancy Prevention.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from SHPPS Web site. The National Campaign To Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy (2006). â€Å"Teen Pregnancy – So What?† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Teenage Web site: US HHS (2002). â€Å"Preventing Teenage Pregnancy.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from US HHS Web site: Weiss, D. (2007). â€Å"Reducing Teenage Pregnancy.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from Planned Parenthood Web site: University of Richmond (2003). â€Å"Teenage Pregnancy Prevention.† Retrieved on December 14, 2007, from University of Richmond Web site:

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Space meets knowledge The impact of workplace design On knowledge sharing ?

Abstract An examination of the role the physical workplace plays in creating opportunities and barriers that influence knowledge management has become a matter of substantial debate. Design of good workplaces for knowledge sharing is considered a major challenge for any organisation. This study provides an insight into the impact of the design and use of the physical workplace on knowledge sharing. Evidence presented in this study substantiates the position that the physical presence of an employee has the potential to impact performance and knowledge management. This assessment will be of use to researchers seeking to further examine the area of knowledge management. Introduction Knowledge management, described as the intentional management of information has become increasingly important to organisations (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Alavi, 1997; Garvin, 1997; Wiig, 1997; Davenport and Prusak, 1998; Ruggles, 1998; Hansen, 1999; Zack, 1999a). In large part this has been fuelled by the exponential growth of the knowledge economy and the increasing number of knowledge workers who have become as essential for many firms competitiveness and survival (Tallman and Chacar 2010). For many emerging organisations face to face contact is essential in the dissemination of knowledge within that infrastructure (Ibid). The process of internal knowledge management is a dynamic element that must be maintained in order to produce results. Literature Review Knowledge is defined as a dynamic human or social process that allows a justification of personal belief as regards the truth (Nonaka 2011). Interaction between people, employees and consumers is one of the primary methods of communicating innovative and inspirational progress. Modern studies in the field of knowledge management have begun to shift focus from the importance of the physical workplace to those engaged in knowledge work (Becker 2004). The recognition of inherent value in the employee base adds incentive to capitalize on the low cost innovative opportunities that knowledge sharing creates (Tallman et al 2010). With critical insight established through the direct contact of the employees, the means of communication becomes a critical concern (Dakir 2012). International companies are recognizing this same value of face to face interaction as the social interaction between management sections, benefits production and development levels world-wide (Noorderhaven and Harzing 2009). In their discussion of social capital, Cohen and Prusak (2001) emphasise the importance of the physical workplace for the exchanging of knowledge, specifically the distribution of ideas amongst individuals in a situation where they could not assume that others knew what they were required to know. Becker (2004) hypothesises that the choices an organisation makes about how space is allocated and designed directly and indirectly shapes the infrastructure of knowledge networks – the dense and richly veined social systems that help people learn faster and engage more deeply in the work of the organisation. This corresponds with the Dakir (2012) argument that technology is no substitute for live interaction among the members of the organization. Davenport et al (2002) undertook a study among 41 firms that were implementing initiatives to advance the performance of high-end knowledge workers who were regarded as critical to the company’s aims. They focused upon determining th e elements that affected the knowledge work performance. Surprisingly, the issue that was most frequently dealt with by these firms involved the physical workplace – â€Å"the other common ones were information technology and management† (Davenport 2005, p. 166). Davenport (2005) emphasises that the recognition of the importance of knowledge work has grown in recent years, but that our understanding of the physical conditions in which knowledge can flourish has failed to keep pace. The inclusion of emerging communication technology has been argued to provide a better opportunity for employee interaction (Rhoads 2010). This same element of improved long distance communication is credited with diminishing the valued impromptu inspiration that many firms rely on during day to day operations (Denstadli, Gripsrud, Hjortahol and Julsrud 2013). According to Davenport et al (2002) workplace design should be seen as a key determinant of knowledge-worker performance, while we largely remain in the dark about how to align ‘space’ to the demands of knowledge work. Davenport (2005) emphasises the point that â€Å"there is a good deal said about the topic, but not much known about it† (p. 165). Most of the decisions concerning the clima te in which work takes place have been created without consideration for performance factors. This fact continues to diminish opportunities for in-house knowledge sharing and effective dissemination of intelligence (Denstadli et al 2013). Becker (2004) points out that the cultivation of knowledge networks underpins the continuing debate about office design, and the relative virtue of open versus closed space. Duffy (2000) confirms these views when he admits that early twenty-first-century architects â€Å"currently know as little about how workplaces shapes business performance as early nineteenth-century physicians knew how diseases were transmitted before the science of epidemiology was established† (p. 371). This makes every emerging decision regarding effective knowledge sharing critical to the development of any organisation. Deprez and Tissen (2009) illustrate the strength of the knowledge sharing process using Google’s approach: â€Å"one company that is fully aware of its ‘spatial’ capabilities†. The spatial arrangements at Google’s offices can serve as a useful example of how design can have a bearing on improving the exchange of knowledge in ways that also add value to the company. The Zurich ‘Google engineering’ office is the company’s newest and largest research and development facility besides Mountain View, California. In this facility, Deprez and Tissen (2009) report: â€Å"Google has created workspaces where people literally ‘slide into space’ (i.e. the restaurant). It’s really true: Google Is different. It’s in the design; it’s in the air and in the spirit of the ‘place’. It’s almost organizing without management. A workplace becomes a ‘workspace’, mobilizing the collectiv e Google minds and link them to their fellow ‘Zooglers’ inside the Zurich office and to access all the outside/external knowledge to be captured by the All Mighty Google organisation† (2009, p. 37). What works for one organisation may not work for another and this appears to be the case in particular when it comes to Google (Deprez et al 2009). Yet, some valuable lessons in how the workplace can be used to good effect can be gained from Google’s operations. For this precise reason, research was carried out at Google Zurich to provide both theoretical and managerial insights into the impact of the design and use of the physical workplace on knowledge sharing (Ibid). Studies comparing the performance of virtual and co-located teams found that virtual teams tend to be more task oriented and exchange less social information than co located ones (Walther & Burgoon 1992; Chidambaram 1996). The researchers suggest this would slow the development of relationships and strong relational links have been shown to enhance creativity and motivation. Other studies conclude that face-to-face team meetings are usually more effective and satisfying than virtual ones, but nevertheless virtual teams can be as effective if given sufficient time to develop strong group relationships (Chidambaram 1996). This research implies the importance of facilitating social interaction in the workplace, and between team members (virtual and co-located) when the team is initially forming. Hua (2010) proposes that repeated encounters, even without conversation, help to promote the awareness of co-workers and to foster office relationships. McGrath (1990) recommends that in the abs ence of the ability to have an initial face-to-face meeting other avenues for building strong relationships are advised to ensure the cohesiveness and effectiveness of the team’s interaction. So although interaction alone is not a sufficient condition for successful collaboration, it does indirectly support collaboration. Nova (2005) points out that physical proximity allow the use of non verbal communication including: different paralinguistic and non-verbal signs, precise timing of cues, coordination of turn-taking or the repair of misunderstandings. Psychologists note that deictic references are used in face-to-face meetings on a regular basis, which refers to pointing, looking, touching or gesturing to indicate a nearby object mentioned in conversation (Ibid). Newlands et al (2002) analysed interactions of two groups performing a joint task in either face-to-face or a video conference system. They found that deictic hand gesture occurred five times more frequently in the face-to-face condition the virtual interaction. More recent research has found that extroverts gesticulate for longer and more often in meetings than introverts (Jonnson 2006). Barbour and Koneya (1976) famously claimed that 55 per cent of communication is non-verbal communication, 38 per cent is done by tone of voice, and only 7 per cent is related to the words and content. Clearly non-verbal communication is a key component of interaction and virtual interaction systems need to replicate this basic need, especially in the early stages of team forming or when the team consists of a high proportion of extroverts. The physical co-location of teams also facilitates collaboration (Ibid). A seminal piece of research carried out by Allen (1977) demonstrated that the probability of two people communicating in an organisation is inversely proportional to the distance separating them, and it is close to zero after 30 metres of physical separation. Furthermore, proximity helps maintain task and group awareness, because when co-located it is easier to gather and update information about the task performed by team members (Dakir 2012). A recent survey of workers at highly collaborative companies found that most â€Å"collaborative events† are short (with 34% lasting fewer than 15 minutes) and the majority take place at the desk (Green 2012). It is likely that these impromptu interactions relate to sharing information (perhaps on the PC) or answering queries rather than lengthy intense discussion and development of joint ideas. Interactions at desks may facilitate tacit knowledge sharing by overhearing relevant conversations between team members, but such interactions can also be considered a distraction if not relevant (Denstadli et al 2013). Methodology There are two acknowledged methodological approaches: quantitative and qualitative (Creswell 2005). The quantitative method involves identifying variables in a research question which are then utilized in order to collate numerical data (Ibid). The qualitative research is open to interpretation allowing personal answers to be incorporated into the study (Creswell 2005). The researcher considered both options in order to complete the necessary goals.Types of DataThere are two forms of data: primary, or newly generated data, or secondary, previous data generated within existing studies (Creswell 2005). This study required the acquisition of primary data creating the need for relevant instruments. A survey with 5 open-ended questions has been created and subsequently conducted with centred on 548 employees working at Google Zurich. This was done in order to explore the perceptions of Google employees with regard to the environment in which they work with a focus on factors that affect knowledge sharing in the work environment.Methods of Data CollectionThe qualitative data analysis employed a Content Analysis technique to reveal participant perceptions of their work environment. The survey questions were designed to explore employee perceptions regarding the following dimensions: 1) Activities that allow for increased exchange of knowledge; 2) Advantages of frequent interaction with colleagues; 3) Individuals or groups dependent on the frequent interaction with co-workers orgroup members; 4) Factors that facilitate interaction within the workplace 5) Factors that inhibit interaction with others in the workplace. Survey participants responded to five open-ended questions and rated their answers using a five-point Likert scale where 5 was ‘most important’. Using a Content Analysis approach (Creswell 2005; Leedy and Ormrod 2005; Neuendorf 2002), the interview responses were analysed. Content Analysis is a qualitative data reduction method that generates categories from key words and phrases in the interview text; it is an evidence-based process in which data gathered through an exploratory approach is systematically analysed to produce predictive or inferential intent (Creswell 2005). Content Analysis was used to identify themes or common concepts in participants’ perceptions regarding the culturally and environmentally distinctive factors that affect interaction in the workplace (Neuendorf, 2002). This process permitted the investigator to quantify and analyse data so that inferences could be drawn. The Content Analysis of survey interview text was categorically coded to reflect various levels of analysis, including key components, words, sentences, or themes (Neuendorf 2002). These themes or key components were then examined using relational analysis to determine whether there were any relationships between the responses of the subjects. The analysis was conducted with Nvivo8 ® software which enables sorting, categorising, and frequency counts of invariant constituents (relevant responses). Content Analysis was used to critically evaluate the survey responses of the study participants, providing in-depth information regarding the factors related to workplace interaction. Sample Respondent Characteristics The invited population consisted of 675 individuals and a total of 548 individuals participated in the survey resulting in a response rate of 81 per cent. Of these 548 completed surveys, 35 responses were discarded because the respondents only partially completed the survey. The final sample consisted of 513 respondents. The key characteristics of these respondents are summarized in Table 4-1.Table 4-1 Sample Respondent Characteristics FactorDescriptionFrequency EducationHigh School Bachelor Degree Certificate Degree Master Degree PhD Degree Other:15 118 19 231 121 9 Tenure< 2 years 2-5 years > 5 years153 331 29 Time Building Use< 1 year 1 year 2 years > 2 years140 102 271 0 Time Desk Use< 3 months 3-6 months 7-12 months > 12 months143 159 126 85 Age< 20 years 21-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years > 50 years0 216 255 35 7 GenderMale Female428 85 MobiltyZurich Office Other Google Office Home Office Travelling Other88.9% 3.9% 3.9% 2.7% 0.5% PositionEngineering Sales and Marketing GandA Other:428 12 14 59 NationalityGermany Switzerland United States France Poland United Kingdom Romania Hungary Netherlands Sweden Spain Australia Russian Federation < 10 respondents73 62 35 33 28 27 24 23 17 16 14 13 12 136 Survey Findings In order to provide an audit trail of participant responses to the thematic categories that emerged from the data analysis, discussion of the findings precedes the tables of data, within a framework consisting of the five survey questions. An overall summary is provided at the conclusion of the discussion of findings. During the analysis of data, common invariant constituents (relevant responses) were categorically coded and associated frequencies were documented. Frequency data included overall frequency of occurrence as well as frequencies based on rating level (5 = most important to 1 = least important). Invariant constituents with a frequency of less than 10 were not included in the tables. Study conclusions were developed through an examination of the high frequency and highly rated invariant constituents in conjunction with the revealed thematic categories.Question 1: Main Activities that Allow Exchange of KnowledgeTable 4-2 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relev ant responses) by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 1. Thematically, the analysis revealed the following primary perceptions of participants in terms of main activities that allow knowledge exchange: (a) meetings of all types; (b) whiteboard area discussions; (c) video conferencing; (d) email, and (e) code reviews. These elements demonstrated a high frequency of importance ratings, and a moderate percentage of respondents rated these elements as ‘most important’ (rating 5). Other themes revealed through the analysis included the importance of writing and reading documentation, Instant Messaging (IM) text chat, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), and extracurricular/social activities. All other invariant constituents with a frequency of greater than 10 are shown in Table 4-2.Table 4-2 Data Analysis Results for Question 1: Main Activities Allowing for Exchange of Knowledge Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating 5=Most important n=51354321 Informal discussion/face to face mtgs/stand ups35114977603332 Formal planned meetings/conference room mtgs2184061563823 Email207747432216 Lunches/Dinners64910151812 Whiteboard area discussions/brainstorming5822131094 Video Conferencing (VC)5841620144 Code Reviews515162046 Writing/Reading Documentation476813164 IM/Text Chat/IRC4610161073 â€Å"Extracurricular Activities† (e.g., pool, socializing, Friday office drinks, etc.)4522151016 Writing/Reading docs specifically wiki pages/sites34210697 Chat (unspecified in person vs. text)3387873 Techtalks2745675 Training/presentations23133106 Mailing lists21102522 Shared docs/doc collaboration1703554 Read/write design docs specifically1202505 Telephone/phone conversations1203243Question 2: Main Advantages of Frequent Interaction with ColleaguesTable 4-3 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 2. Thematically, t he analysis revealed the following elements representing the primary perceptions of participants in terms of the main advantages to frequent interaction with colleagues: (a) knowledge and information exchange and transfer; (b) staying current on projects and processes; (c) social interaction; (d) learning from others; (e) faster problem resolution; (f) efficient collaboration; and (g) continuous and early feedback. The following themes received a high frequency of importance ratings and a large percentage of ‘most important’ and ‘important’ ratings (rating 5 and 4, respectively) included: knowledge sharing, staying in touch and up to date, learning from others, faster resolution/problem solving, better collaboration, and feedback. Although socialising was revealed to be a strong overall theme, it also demonstrated lower importance ratings. Other themes revealed through the analysis are provided in Table 4-3.Table 4-3 Data Analysis Results for Question 2: Ma in Advantages of Frequent Interaction Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating 5=Most important n=51354321 Knowledge sharing/exchange of information/Knowledge transfer149753919124 Staying in touch/up to date/ more info on projects and processes11358281782 Socializing/social interaction7451035186 Learning/learning from others/learning new things/increased knowledge base7217281485 Understand problems/needs – faster resolution and quicker problem solving7025241146 Better/more efficient collaboration67428953 Feedback/continuous feedback/early feedback661729893 New and better ideas/flow of ideas/creativity/ brainstorming6525151474 Teamwork/being part of a team/teambuilding5110121892 Get work done/efficiency/speed462613241 Fun4421115115 Better understanding of what others are doing and how/workloads4415171002 Everyone on same page/shared vision/focus on goals of team32109652 Better personal contact and easy interaction27561123 Avoid misunderstanding/work duplication27810441 Helping others/getting help (when stuck)26391031 Good/happy atmosphere/work environment2412858 Networki ng2219624 Motivate each other/inspiration2151582 Other/new perspectives/viewpoints18210312 Improving quality of work/performance1615910 Work synchronization1628141 Productivity1231431 Knowing latest news/innovations1203216 Better communication1011521Question 3: Individuals or Groups that are Dependent on Frequent InteractionTable 4-4 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) given by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 3. Thematically, the analysis revealed the following elements representing the primary perceptions of participants in terms of individuals or groups that are dependent on frequent interaction of the participant: (a) my team/project teammates/peers; and (b) managers. The first theme demonstrated a high frequency of importance ratings with a moderate percentage of ‘most important’ and ‘important’ ratings (rating 5 and 4, respectively). Although the theme of managers was revealed to be a relatively strong overall theme, it also demonstrated lower importance ratings. Other themes revealed through the analysis are shown in Table 4-4.Table 4-4 Data Analysis Results for Question 3: Individual/groups dependent on frequent interaction of participant Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating 5=Most important n=51354321 My team/project teammates/peers12887191435 Managers/PMs484241163 Users/customers/clients357121042 All reports/related teams34717442 Engineering teams (various)28188200 Recruiting team/staffing1753630 Geo Teams1576200 Operations teams1423522 All of them1191010 HQ1133122 Other engineers using my project/peer developers of my tool1015310Question 4: Factors Facilitating Easy InteractionTable 4-5 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 4. Thematically, the analysis revealed the following elements representing the primary perceptions of participants about factors that facilitate easy interaction: (a) common, proximal, and open workspace areas; (b) common functional areas; (c) sufficient and available meeting facilities; (d) excellent communication tools; and (e) video conference facilities. The theme of open and common workspace areas/shared office space demonstr ated a high frequency of importance ratings with a very large percentage of ‘most important’ ratings (rating 5). Other revealed themes, particularly the second listed theme, demonstrated relatively high overall frequency, but these themes did not demonstrate the strength of importance that the first theme did. Other themes and invariant constituents revealed through the analysis are shown in Table 4-5.Table 4-5 Data Analysis Results for Question 4: Factors Facilitating Easy Interaction Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating 5=Most important n=51354321 Open and Common workspace areas/shared office space/desk locations/sitting together175103342594 Common shared Areas (e.g., Kitchen, play/game rooms, lounges, library, etc.)173406642178 Enough facilities for meetings/availability of meeting and conference areas90192730122 Great communication tools (email, VC, chats, dist. Lists, online docs, wireless, VPN, mobile†¦)80113014187 Video Conference meeting rooms/facilities78192518124 Onsite lunch/dinner/common dining area (free food and eating together)5071511134 Whiteboard areas for informal meetings431018771 Corporate culture/open culture/ open communication culture431811932 Email421113954 Casual and social environment/open atmosphere36195921 People: easy going, friendly, smart, knowledgeable, willing to help35149336 Social Events2836577 Company calendar/planned ops for meeting/ scheduled meetings1937621 Geographic co-location/same time zone1374200 Travel/trips to other offices1212135 Chat (non-specific t ext or in person)1124302 IM/internet chat1051112 MOMA/social networking/wiki pages/company docs1010342Question 5: Factors Inhibiting Interaction with OthersTable 4-6 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 5. Thematically, the analysis revealed a single strong element and several elements with less relevance as inhibiting factors. The physical geographic differences – specifically the time zone differences – were noted by a majority of participants as the most important element that inhibited interaction with others. Study participants perceived their overscheduled and busy work lives, noise levels in their workspaces, and shared work environments to be contributing inhibitory factors with regard to interaction with others. These elements also demonstrated high frequencies of importance ratings with a moderate percentage of ‘most important’ ratings (rating 5). Other themes revealed through the analysis are shown in Table 4-6.Table 4-6 Data Analysis Results for Question 5: Factors Inhibiting Interaction with Others Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating 5=Most important n=51354321 Physical Geographic distance/ timezone differences16411536931 Very busy/Overscheduled people/ overbooked calendars/ too many meetings4517161020 Crowded/noisy environment/ noise in shared space33196440 Defective VCs/ VC suboptimal/ VC equipment not working2597720 No meeting rooms available2286620 Too few VC rooms in some locations / lack of available VC rooms1949501 Open Space: no privacy, interruptions/ disruptions1958321 Information overload/ too much email1562610 Large office building/building size and layout/ too many people, difficult to find people15114000 Team split between multiple sites or large distance between team members in same bldg1545420 Need more whiteboards/lack of informal areas with whiteboards1135210 Language barrier: lack of correct English/not knowing colloquial lang. or nuances1151311 Lack of time/deadlines1152121 Different working hours within same time zone1053200 Discussion Both the literature and the survey have illuminated interesting facets of the work environment and the need for personal communication. The analysis of the 513 participants’ responses to five open-ended questions from the employee perception survey revealed patterns of facilitating and inhibiting factors in their work environment. Nonaka (2011) clearly illustrates this point with the argument that the communal environment promotes a standard of communication not found in the technological alternatives. Further, the shift away from the organization to the person orientation provides a fundamental benefit to every employee (Becker 2004). With a rising recognition of individual value, the organisation is building employee trust. Participants in this study preferred frequent, informal opportunities for the exchange of knowledge. The opportunity for growth was centred on the capacity to exchange concepts in a free and easy manner (Nonaka 2011). The evidence presented in this study demonstrates that these opportunities were more valued by team members with high knowledge exchange needs. This is line with the increased depth of knowledge and ability to meet technical needs through employee communication (Tallman et al 2010). A combination of professional advice can benefit the entire production and development process. In this study, transactions among participants were often brief, and were perceived to require limited space – often just stand-up space – with noise-regulating options not found in open-office environments. Dakir (2012) demonstrates the environment has the potential to add to or detract from employee communication, making this factor a critical consideration. Spontaneous and opportunistic knowledge-sharing transactions were valued, and technology provided a platform for this type of knowledge exchange to occur. This evidence from the survey corresponds with the literature illustrating that increased communication and sharing in the workplace enhances the entire operation, as well as providing new and fresh opportunities and innovations (Tallman et al 2010). The research at Google provides further support for the view of some leading companies who strongly believe that having workers in the same place is crucial to their success (Noorderhaven et al 2009). Yahoo’s CEO Marissa Mayer communicated via a memo to employees that June 2013, any existing work-from-home arrangements will no longer apply. Initial studies theorized that the work at home system would provide a better platform for workers, even on a local level (Dakir 2012). Many points of the memo cited in this Yahoo example, parallel the literature presented in this study. Her memo stated (Moyer 2013): â€Å"To become the absolute best place to work, communication and collaboration will be important, so we need to be working side-by-side.† This is clearly in line with the Coehen and Prusak (2001) assertion that the physical workplace is a critical element of the dynamic business. â€Å"That is why it is critical that we are all present in our offices. Some of the be st decisions and insights come from hallway and cafeteria discussions, meeting new people, and impromptu team meetings.† This element of the her reasoning is nearly identical to the argument presented by Dakir (2012), that a successful company do so, in part, by promoting communication and teamwork in the office, the technical alternatives are not enough. â€Å"Speed and quality are often sacrificed when we work from home. We need to be one Yahoo!, and that starts with physically being together†¦.Being a Yahoo isn’t just about your day-to-day job, it is about the interactions and experiences that are only possible in our offices† (Moyer 2013). This section is directly in line with emerging studies citing the vital nature of the interaction and face to face employee contact (Heerwagen et al. 2004). This study has clearly demonstrated that Mayer is not alone in her thinking; Steve Jobs operated in a similar fashion as well (Davenport et al 2002). Despite being a denizen of the digital world, or maybe because he knew all too well its isolating potential, Jobs was a strong believer in face-to-face meetings. â€Å"There’s a temptation in our networked age to think that ideas can be developed by email and iChat,† he said. â€Å"That’s crazy. Creativity comes from spontaneous meetings, from random discussions. You run into someone, you ask what they’re doing, you say ‘Wow,’ and soon you’re cooking up all sorts of ideas† (Isaacson, 2011, p. 431). This assertion by Jobs closely resembles the argument presented in the Rhoads (2010) study that found a clear correlation between the communication capacity and opportunity for successful innovation and progress. Following this philosophy led Jobs to have the Pixar building designed to pr omote encounters and unplanned collaborations.Mayer’s former colleague at Google agrees (Ibid). Speaking at an event in Sydney February 2013, Google CFO Patrick Pichette said that teleworking is not encouraged at Google. This reflects the consensus that is emerging that time in the office is not only valuable but necessary to sustained competition in the industry (Denstadli et al 2013). Pichette believes that working from home could isolate employees from other staff. Companies like Apple, Yahoo! and Google are holding on to (or have started embracing) the belief that having workers in the same place is crucial to their success (Dakir 2012). This appears to be based on the view that physical proximity can lead to casual exchanges, which in turn can lead to breakthroughs for products. Heerwagen et al (2004) illustrates that it is evident that â€Å"knowledge work is a highly cognitive and social activity†. Non-verbal communication is complex and involves many unconscious mechanisms e.g. gesture, body language, posture, facial expression, eye contact, pheromones, proxemics, chronemics, haptics, and paralanguage (Denstadli et al 2013). So, although virtual interaction can be valuable it is not a replacement for face-to-face interaction, particularly for initial meetings of individuals or teams. Furthermore, the increase in remote working has indicated that face-to-face interaction is important for motivation, team-building, mentoring, a sense of belonging and loyalty, arguably more so than in place-centred workgroups (Deprez and Tissen 2009). Conclusion The role of knowledge management in the workplace has become an increasingly valuable segment of a company’s resources. This study examined the practice of working remotely versus employee interaction in the work place providing many illuminating developments. Despite the early optimism that emerging technology was going to provide the end all to employee work habits have proven less than fully realized. The evidence in this study has continuously illustrated an environment that requires the innovative, face to face interaction in order to maintain a competitive edge in the industry. Further, the very environment that promotes this free exchange of ideals is not adequately substituted by technology. In short, the evidence provided in this study has clearly demonstrated the advantage that the in house employee has over the remote worker. The impromptu encounters between employees are very often the elements needed for progress. What is clear is that in order for a business to capitalize on their full range of available resources virtually requires, face to face personal interaction in order to fully realize the firms full potential. In the end, it will be the combination of leadership, teamwork and innovation that provides business with the best environment, not necessarily how much technology is available. References Dalkir, K. 2005. Knowledge management in theory and practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth Heinemann. Denstadli, J., Gripsrud, M., Hjorthol, R. and Julsrud, T. 2013. Videoconferencing and business air travel: Do new technologies produce new interaction patterns?. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 29 pp. 1–13. Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. 2011. The wise leader. Harvard Business Review, 89 (5), pp. 58–67. Noorderhaven, N. and Harzing, A. 2009. Knowledge-sharing and social interaction within MNEs.Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (5), pp. 719–741. Rhoads, M. 2010. Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Communication: What Does Theory Tell Us and What Have We Learned so Far?. Journal of Planning Literature, 25 (2), pp. 111–122. Tallman, S. and Chacar, A. 2011. Knowledge Accumulation and Dissemination in MNEs: A Practice-Based Framework. Journal of Management Studies, 48 (2), pp. 278–304.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Discuss Spielberg's treatment of history in Schindler's List and Essay

Discuss Spielberg's treatment of history in Schindler's List and Amistad - Essay Example oth films, Schindler’s List and Amistad, Spielberg takes liberties with history in two ways; changing documented events to fit within the film’s agenda and the omission of crucial parts of the story to create a different impression of history than what documented facts show. Steven Spielberg is one of only a handful of directors that could change history through his movies without losing profits. This allows Spielberg to fulfil both objectives of making money and promoting his view of history. This essay will examine Spielberg’s treatment of history in his two films, Schindler’s List and Amistad in an attempt to show that movies can be inspired by history, but in reality are a work of fiction. Spielberg did not portray the violence that the book Schindler’s List by Thomas Keneally describes. Characters were portrayed differently. Many factors made the book and movie different. Even though Schindler’s List, the movie was based on Schindler’s List, the book, Spielberg made the movie his own. Amistad was also Spielberg’s creation. Spielberg took Amistad and tried to teach a moral lesson. The only problem is Spielberg made Amistad from the point of a white man, not an African American. Thus, the moral lesson became the white men involved in the case came to the realisation that the Africans were human also. This point of view made white Americans and Spielberg feel better about the enslavement of African Americans by showing that not every American at the time was pro-slavery. An African American director, like Spike Lee, would have shown more of the African American experience. One look at Amistad and Roots shows the difference of the black and white point of view concerning slavery Schindler’s List begins in the present day, the picture is full of colors and shows some Jewish people performing religious rituals in Hebrew. Then, Spielberg goes back in time to 1939 when Germany conquered Poland. The Jews in Poland were asked to

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Analysis of Tesco Christmas Advert 2014 - Lights on Essay

Analysis of Tesco Christmas Advert 2014 - Lights on - Essay Example The ad ends with a tagline â€Å"Every Little Helps Make Christmas†. Tesco seems to be shifting from its messaging, which has been price-based in the past, to focusing on customers and how the supermarket can help customers over the Christmas period (Butler & Sweney, 2014: p1). The ad seeks to celebrate Christmas and the excitement that the Christmas season brings to customer, as well as Tesco’s focus on aiding the country’s citizens in useful and fun ways. Tesco’s advertising and marketing throughout the 2014 season has been based on price, especially in promoting their money-saving schemes and lower prices. However, it has been noted that this barely helped to improve Tesco’s sales, as the supermarket has been one of the worst performers in the sector with sales dropping by 3.6% in the third quarter of 2014. As a result, their new ad has sought to focus on the customer (Butler & Sweney, 2014: p1). The Tesco advertisement can be analyzed using Cialdini’s weapons of influence, in this case using the weapons of reciprocity, social proof, and liking. Cialdini (2001; p132) identifies reciprocity as one of the weapons of influence, contending that if a request is preceded by a gift that the individual did not expect, then the marketer has a better chance of convincing potential clients. In this case, the customer will feel the importance of returning the marketer’s favour. Tesco uses scenes of their staff aiding customers visiting their supermarket to choose their Christmas decorations, which they hope customers will view as a favour and will reciprocate by buying Christmas decorations from Tesco. Social norms compel people to reciprocate a favour with another (Rodgers & Thorson, 2013: p29). As such, the narrator in the Tesco ad claims that Tesco is there to help customers every step of the way during the Christmas season, making it more likely that

Reference Works Report Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reference Works Report - Assignment Example I therefore read all the encyclopedia’s relating to the kind of search entry that I had entered during the search. During this process I read the overview of the respective books from the library that conforms to the search entries. At this point I noticed and felt that the kind of the information that is provided in the overview was helpful in a given way though should have been a little more inclusive and detailed in their unique way. There were also used as key words, however some of these key words poses difficulty in terms of finding the search results. The most difficult key word I used is eating canned food. This is because it did not give much expected results. The results were limited to certain areas of the research. However, the results gotten on it were mainly relating to and animal feeds. Fishes mongering was the interesting source as it contained in-depth and informed expression of knowledge. It brought into perspective how fishing is done by fishermen and consumed by people world over. I therefore find such an article very much important in doing my research work on canned

Monday, August 26, 2019

Negative Consequences of Economic Growth in Bangladesh Essay

Negative Consequences of Economic Growth in Bangladesh - Essay Example Environmental damage is also inextricably linked to two widening gaps that go hand-in-hand: the gap between rich and poor and the gap between developed and developing countries (Stenzel, 2002). This is commonly referred to as the imbalance in a nation's income distribution. Economic growth is seen to widen the gap between the income of rich and poor. Kuznets (1971) cites that one intriguing aspect of structural change brought by economic growth is that it represents shifts in the relative shares in the economy of the specific population groups attached to particular production sectors. Economic growth perforce brings about a decline in the relative position of one group after another - of farmers, of small scale producers, of landowners - a change not easily accepted, and, in fact, as history teaches us, often resisted. The continuous disturbance of pre-existing relative position of the several economic groups is pregnant with conflict - despite the rises in absolute income or product common to all groups.3 In the case of less developed countries, Kuznets quotes, may require modifications in the available stock of material technology, and probably even greater innovations in political and social structure.4 Also, Stenzel cites that despite increasing wealth on a global scale, about half of the world's people live on $2 a day or less, and at least 1.2 million people live on less than $1 a day. The Case of Bangladesh The table below shows economic growth as production of goods and services within the Bangladesh's boundaries is growing positively since 1990-2005. It should be noted that in 2005, the country's GDP represents a 110% change from the 1990 level. However, Landesman (1994) cites that intensive shrimp culture in Bangladesh5 might lead to the loss of mangrove habitat as most shrimp farming in Southeast Asia takes place on reclaimed mangrove forests. It must be noted that mangrove forests are critically important habitats for the reproduction and growth of shrimp postlarvae and juveniles and their replacement by shrimp ponds will adversely affect the recruitment of larval fish and shrimp in the areas concerned. Also, as Bangladesh is still dependent on collecting wild shrimp post-larvae to stock shrimp ponds, depletion of local populations of shrimp postlarvae can occur due to this collecting (Bashirullah 1989, Turner 1986). In Bangladesh, collectors of shrimp postlarvae also catch fish larvae and small invertebrates. This bycatch is allowed to die on the beach. Practices such as this may adversely affect populations of other fish and invertebrates in the Bay of Bengal. In terms of income distribution, we can see that Bangladesh bulk of the country's wealth is concentrated in the hands of the upper class. The most recent data on income distribution cites that during 2006, which the highest 10% in the population accounts for almost 28.96% of the total income while the lowest 10% holds a meager 3%. This is further aggravated by the recent economic development which puts a high concentration of growth in income in the hands of elite (Economy of Bangladesh, 2006). Eutrophication of surrounding coastal areas from nutrients discharged in shrimp pond effluents is a looming problem on the water areas concerned in Bangladesh, which is especially true for intensive shrimp culture systems for the high feeding, fertilization and water exchange rates require frequent discharge

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Discussing the relationship between son and father Essay

Discussing the relationship between son and father - Essay Example The persona is helpless and this only explains the fact that the war in the World War II most affected the powerless in the region. Many themes are evident in this text such as; betrayal, resistance, collaboration and the relationship between father and son. The mood is somber because the persona hopes to save his family from the experience they all had with Holocaust but to his surprise, they are all gone. The group that was concerned with this form of inhumanity was referred to as â€Å"Nazis† and it supported the move by the Parisians. This group was made up of the Germans who were followers of Hitler. The Nazis were also against the existence of the Jewish in Paris hence, collaborated with the French policemen in order to destroy their existence. This was a form of betrayal by the Germans to the Jews since, they were neighbors in a foreign country but they still went ahead and collaborated with the natives in order to destroy them. All forms of inhuman activities are evide nt during this time and Eliezer cannot help but take the bull by its horn. He witnesses people being hang and burnt and he lives each day for his father. He says that the only thing that prevented him from dying was his father. This is because, without him, his father could not make it alone. However, it is ironic how some of the prisoners turn cruel just as the Nazis. The prisoners who are captives together with their fathers start mistreating their fathers for their survival. This relationship between a father and a son is supposed to be mutual but to Eliezer’s surprise, it is even worse than the relationship that can ever exist between two people not sharing blood. Eliezer narrates a story that involves three instances where the sons mistreat their father for their survival. In one instance, a son killed his father just to have a piece of bread to himself. This was uncouth because, just because the food that was offered to them was not enough, a son had to kill his father in order to save his own life. This happened when a German threw a piece of bread in the cattle truck the prisoners had been herded into during transportation. Another character referred to as, the son to Rabbi Eliahu is also seen abandoning his slow and weak father at the occurrence of a mad run for the purpose of increasing his chances that were left to save his life. In addition, Elizier also felt this form of burden through his father’s presence and that is why, he kept on fighting just to be alive for him. The live incidence when their fellow prisoners were hung in front of them was heartbreaking and saddening and in fact, this is what contributed to the hostile relations between fathers and sons (Wiesel, 2006). The sons starved to keep their lives going and since the presence of their father was a hindrance as they had to be reluctant in making any steps that might have left them behind, the only solution was to finish them completely. This was the highest degree of inh umanity. In this text, the author intertwines the past with the present to bring out the real meaning of the life that was experienced during the World War II in 1942. A story about a 10-year-old girl called Sarah; helps a journalist, Julia to uncover the true story about her husband’s family who are French. It is so sad to learn that the same people living in the modern world are the same people who mistreated

Saturday, August 24, 2019

St. Augustine would suport Dr. Marin Luther King Jr. ideas of civil Essay

St. Augustine would suport Dr. Marin Luther King Jr. ideas of civil disobdience - Essay Example St. Augustine illustrated his interpretation of unjust laws with his argument that the motivations of man, that being lust for authority and self-determination, undermined Gods precepts of morality and social equality. Augustine relates Gods law as that of "supreme reason" to which all men should conform (Evodius and Augustine dialogue), even those leaders who Augustine deems unreasonable for implementing legal systems that defy Gods intentions. Having established St. Augustines comparisons of laws which he considers unjust, that is, those laws which defy Christian values, Augustine promotes the concept of "temporal law" under which civilians often turn over their rights as Gods citizens to corrupted leadership who act for private interests. Moreover, these temporal laws can be changed when they are unjustly established without securing the public good, thus Augustine suggests that Christian values can be considered the supreme reason by which society can justifiably refuse adherence to corrupt laws. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a renowned civil rights activist in the 20th century, further supported the idea of unjust or immoral laws by promoting the necessity for civil disobedience, or a somewhat passive approach to refusing immoral or un-Christian laws, through protest and refusal to comply with any law that destroys the civil liberties of society. Moreover, King was inspired by the Eastern philosophy of utilizing truth and love as an instrument to resist injustice, rather than promoting violence (Smith, 1970). In accordance to Christian beliefs, truth and love became the cornerstone for Kings support for civil disobedience. Dr. King also substantiates the viewpoint of St. Augustine in terms of relating moral law to that of corrupt law, thus both Christianity proponents support the premise that any law which destabilizes Christian morality is a law which cannot be supported by blind compliance. This project is designed to not only

Friday, August 23, 2019

Emotional and Behavioral disorders Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Emotional and Behavioral disorders - Essay Example me of the common EBD conditions include affective disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, conduct and attention disorder, and adjustment disorders (Lehr, 2005). In general for the management of students with EBD in a classroom setting may not really be effective (Keller, 2002). The approaches that are chosen should be evidence-based and proven through empirical literature. The level of support provided to the students should be classified into 3 levels, namely, primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. At the primary level, problems are prevented from developing, and in general all the students are targeted through teaching appropriate behavior. Secondary prevention includes decreasing the severity of the problems and lowering the risks that may be present to the students. At the tertiary level, established problems are reviewed and appropriate interventions are implemented. Besides, the severity and duration of the negative outcomes are reduced using various measures (Lehr, 2005). Children with EBD may need placement for at least some duration of time in special classrooms that provide a structured environment for development. The outcomes in such an environment are more controlled and predictable. Students in such a program would be rewarded for appropriate behavior (Hewett, 2002). The teacher would constantly assess the needs of the classroom and demonstrate systematic teaching through several modes including discussion, presentation, modeling, etc. Behavior modifications may be required though behavior therapies such as positive reinforcement, contracting, etc. Supportive therapies in the form of music, art and exercise therapies may be needed to increase a self-understanding and self-esteem of the child (Council for Exceptional Children, 2011). One of the key elements in managing stress that may be required by teachers teaching children with EBD is self-awareness. Through self-awareness, the teacher is better able to understand the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Exclusionary Rule Essay Example for Free

Exclusionary Rule Essay Constitutional Law pertains to the account of fundamental laws of nation-states and other political associations. Thus, constitutions refer to the foundation and structure for government and could limit or characterize the power and system of political institutions to carry out new laws and policies (Chemerinsky, 2003). The constitution sets the boundaries of new laws, thus, the entire state is subjected to the constitution. The Fourteenth amendment of the United States which covers citizenship and civil rights is where the Fourth Amendment sprouted from. In recognition of equality among citizens discarding race, ethnicity and religion, the fourth amendment was made to protect the rights of the citizens and those are the right to due process and to privacy and security of his properties. This fourth amendment was created in 1914 was at the federal level and was only adapted by all states of America. The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Search and Seizure) includes the Exclusionary Rule which protects citizens of the United States from illegal searches of their private properties (Sundberg). Any unwarranted intrusions made by the police force to the privacy of an individual are prohibited by law. For a search to be valid the warrant to search should be able to describe in detail the items to be searched, the location and facilities to be confiscated (Roberts, 2007). This lets the people enjoy their right to feel secure of their houses, documents, papers and other properties that are considered private. The rule also gives the citizen a right to due process as the police force cannot just confiscate and search them without the needed papers. Furthermore, this law also abides by the philosophy of deontology wherein the action is judged to be right or wrong if the root of the action itself is based upon the duty and obligation of a person (Darwall, 12). Thus, the means upon which evidence is acquired is more important than the value of the evidence gathered. Since this rule encompass criminal cases only, even if the police found a gun or any evidence that points out that the man who owns the property upon which the evidence was found is indeed the perpetrator, this evidence will be considered invalid in court and will not make any impact on the courts decision given that the police did not have the warrant to search the individuals property. In addition to that, a search that is made in areas that is not specified by the warrant is not allowed even if evidences are found within the parameters of the facility that was searched. The positive side of this law is that it protects the rights of every citizen against illegal searches by the police, thus securing their privacy. This also discourages illegal searches and bounds the police to their duty by following the law. However, the downside of this rule is that if evidence is found in illegally searched areas, even if it can very well summarize the outcome of the case will be put to waste for the simple reason that there was no warrant of arrest or it was not indicated in the warrant that such place is included in the search. The absence of that piece of paper means a lot in the proceedings, and such important evidences are discarded. For example, a weapon that is found in the car of a murderer with his finger print on it would still be useless in court since it was searched illegally. Which is more important then, the evidence or how the evidence was obtained? Perhaps for us to fully assess the situation it is a need for us to analyze a certain scenario. For the purpose of further understanding the gravity of the situation let us assume that a bomb explosion took place in a residential neighborhood rendering 10 people killed and 20 other wounded. Right after the explosion operatives responded in just 3 minutes given that the place is in close proximity to the police station. The initial assumption was for it to be a terroristic act. Since the neighborhood was closely knit almost everyone knew something about everybody. They denied that such ruthless murderer could be one of their residents but a policeman guided by his instinct was convinced that a prominent resident of the neighborhood did the bombing. The resident was bound to leave the place the day after but since it was a Sunday, the court was close and cannot issue a warrant plus the fact that they cannot link him to the bomb explosion. The policemen decided to search the house of the resident without the warrant and found evidence. Materials of making a bomb were found at his residence. They arrested him but after years the case was dismissed because of the exclusion rule. First and foremost, there was no warrant and second they filed motion to suppress the evidence. The law supports the defendants claim and sets him free. This issue is a philosophical debate of the deontological and consequentialist groups (Philip, 2002). Deontological perspective would argue that the fault was in the part of the officials since they did not do their duty. To act from duty is to do the right thing and it is more important that catching the perpetrator before he leaves the town. The obedience of duty is placed in higher value as the result of their act. Even if they found the evidence and arrested the man responsible for the bombing that killed 10 people, it is still not valid. They did not abide to their duty. â€Å"A human action is morally good if and only if it is done from duty† (Kant, 397–399). Consequential or Utilitarianism would say that the act of searching without a warrant is the right thing to do since they found who did the bombing. The measures upon which the police undertook to get to the perpetrator is not important as long as the greater good for the most number of people was realized, and that is justice. It does not matter if there is no warrant and the police invaded the house of a private citizen as long as the truth was discovered and the person responsible was caught. The evidence was clear, therefore is compensates for the policeman’s inability to adhere to the Fourth Amendment. Both philosophies have their reasons that are enough to justify their claims, but I believe that we should keep the Fourth Amendment as it is. It is in our law that we should respect the privacy and rights of a citizen. In the scenario above the policemen caught the perpetrator because they found evidence in his household. The search was illegal but either way, they got what they were looking for. However, what if they saw nothing, would it not be invasion of privacy on grounds as weak as instinct? Then the basic right to privacy and security of the citizen would have been violated. There is no need to change the exclusionary rule, policemen should abide by their duty and help to protect the rights of the people. We cannot compromise the basic rights of an individual for public safety. Though it is the duty of the police to go after the perpetrator and give justice to the crimes he has committed, he also has rights whether he is a citizen of the United States or not. According to the fourth amendment the exclusionary rule covers even illegal aliens. We cannot strip a person with his rights even if the need arises for the simple reason that it is adherence to our duty that defines who we are. If the exclusionary rule is to be abolished then, warrantless arrests and rampant would be more prevalent in our nation. Even now that the rule takes effect there are still violations. Rampant searches especially to our brothers with colors are evident in our nation. Wire tapping is also an issue about the security of communication lines especially for public officials. The Bush administration wanted to allow the use of evidences that were illegally seized by the police given that it was in good faith and is useful in finding the person who is responsible for the crime. Plus they want to allow federal agents to arrest persons without a warrant of arrest regardless of nationality as long as it is done with the most honest intentions. Sure this can solves some crimes such as the scenario given above, but I want to point out that this only allows further suppression of a persons liberty. When the use of illegally searched evidences is allowed in court, this would only encourage the policeman to search anyone and any house or establishment that they want to search and if they find nothing, the person concerned can’t go after the policemen and ask for damages. They will be protected by law to barge into the homes of countless citizens and invade their privacy. If we take action just because we believe that it is for the best even if it is not in our duty, we have no guarantee that that action can be fruitful. It can’t be denied that there is a need to reduce crime in our nation and solve those that are still looking for justice, but giving justice for the price of a person’s liberty is a cost that’s too high for a nation who values autonomy of its citizens. The exclusionary rule has set standards for our policemen for them to abide too such that their level of professionalism and adherence to their duty is further raised higher. They are bounded by law to protect the citizens of this nation and they should do so while safeguarding the basic rights of every individual. Thus, there is a need for the exclusionary rule to uphold the liberty of this nation. Reference