Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Chemistry 16 Lab Manual

Table of Contents Laboratory Safety and Laboratory Guidelines Common and Special Laboratory Equipment Materials and Other Requirements Common Laboratory Operations and Techniques Experiment 1 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 10 Properties of Matter Experiment 2 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 12 Chemical Changes Experiment 3 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 15 Classification of Matter Experiment 4 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 17 Chemical Nomenclature: The Language of Chemistry Experiment 5 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 22 Water of HydrationExperiment 6 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 25 Gases Experiment 7 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 27 Oxygen Experiment 8 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 29 Heat and Volume Effects Experiment 9 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 31 Flame Test Experiment 10 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 32 Electromotive Series Experiment 11 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 33 Oxidation – Reduction Reactions/ Some Aspects of Corrosion Experiment 12†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 35 Colligative Properties GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO THE STUDENTS Apparatus Check each piece of apparatus, which you find in your locker from the duplicate list furnished to you by your instructor. Sign your name and submit to your instructor. The instructor signs the checklists and gives one copy to you for your safekeeping. ? Provide your locker with reliable padlock. You are responsible for all the apparatus issued to you. Towards the end of the semester you have to replace or give a deposit for any piece which you have lost or broken. If you have partners, each of you will share equally any loss or breakage of apparatus kept in your lockers and those orrowed from the stockroom. A clearance duly signed by the laboratory attendant is a requirement for taking the final examination. NO CLEARANCE, NO FINAL EXAMINATION. ? General apparatus, e. g. , Bunsen burner, thermometer, iron stand, clamps, etc. and special apparatus may be borrowed from the laboratory attendant. ? Borr owing of apparatus from the stockroom should be done during the first 30 minutes of the laboratory period. Materials and Other Requirements You have to provide yourself with the following materials and supplies besides the apparatus in the laboratory locker and the stockroom: Group |Individual | |Masking/paper tape |Tissue paper |Vials with cover (5 pcs) |Lab notebook | |Pair of scissors |Rags |Medicine dropper (3-5 pcs) |Lab manual | |Aspirator |Marking pens |Rubber tubing (2 ft) |Lab gown | |Wire gauze |Filter paper |Newspaper/scratch paper |Hand towel | |Wash bottle |Tray |Stirring rod |Mask | |Liquid detergent |Match |Corks/rubber stoppers |Goggles | |Test tube brush |Test tube holder |Padlock with keys | | Laboratory Work Laboratory work is an integral and essential part of any chemistry course. Chemistry is an experimental science – the compounds and reactions that are met in the lecture and classroom work has been discovered by experimental observation. The purpose of laboratory work is to provide an opportunity to observe the reality of compounds and reactions and to learn something of the operations and techniques. Safety is Top Priority ? All students are required to wear a lab gown during each experiment. This will be strictly enforced to avoid accidents caused by chemical spills and the like. Safety glasses, goggles or eye shields must be worn during the experiment. Contact lenses should not be worn. ? Shorts, skirts, sandals, slippers are not allowed in the laboratory. Secure long hair. ? Never taste, smell, or touch a chemical solution unless specifically directed to do so. Individual allergic or sensitivity responses to chemicals cannot be anticipated. If any chemical comes in contact with any other parts of your body or clothes, wash thoroughly with plenty of water. ? Procedures involving the liberation of volatile or toxic flammable materials shall be performed in a fume hood (e. g. , H2S, HCN). ? Never heat a flask or apparatus that is not opened to the atmosphere. Always pour waste acid, used KMnO4, organic solvents and solutions of heavy metals into their respective disposal jars, never into the sink. ? Replace the cover of every container immediately after removal of reagent. Deposit insoluble refuse such as pieces of paper, wood, glass cork in the waste basket, never into the sink or on the floor ? All accidents, injuries, breakages and spillages, no matter how minor, must be reported immediately to the instructor. ? Eating, drinking, smoking and playing inside the laboratory are strictly prohibited. Your hands may be contaminated with â€Å"unsafe† chemicals. ? Unauthorized experiments, including variations of those in the laboratory manual, are strictly prohibited.If your chemical intuition suggests further experimentation, consult with your instructor first. ? Unauthorized person(s) shall not be allowed in the laboratory. ? Maintain a wholesome, businesslike attitude. Horseplay and other careless ac ts are prohibited. ? The tabletop must be cleared of unnecessary materials. Put all bags and books in designated areas. ? Solids, water and other liquids spilled on your tabletop must be cleaned up as soon as possible ? No electronic equipment (laptops, ipod, mp3s, cellphone, etc. ) will be switched on while working in the lab. For Economic Reasons ? Always turn off the burner as soon as you are finished using it. Get only the amount of the reagent, which you need in the experiment. Use spatula for solid reagents and pipet for liquid ones. ? Never return any excess reagent to a bottle, unless specifically directed, to avoid contamination Before leaving the room, see to it that: ? Your locker is locked ? Your assigned water and/or gas outlet(s) are turned off ? The tabletop and the floor near your working area are clean and dry Collecting Data ? Record all data as they are being collected on the laboratory notebook. Data on scraps of paper (such as mass measurements in the balance ro om) will be confiscated. ? Record the data in ink as you perform the experiment. If a mistake is made in recording data, cross out the incorrect data entry with a single line (do not erase, white out or obliterate) and clearly enter the corrected data nearby. If a large section of data is deemed incorrect, write a short notation as to why the data are in error, place a single diagonal line across the data, and note where the correct data are recorded. Assessment: Evaluation of the students’ progress will be based on performance laboratory experiments; written reports of laboratory work and exams. The distribution is as follows: Exams35% Performance/ Attendance15% Written Laboratory report35% Pre-laboratory write-up/ Data notebook15%Laboratory Course Policies: 1. Arrive on time. The overview and description of the lab exercise, and the questions you need to answer in your written reports are usually given at the start of each session. These could be valuable to the success of you laboratory course. 2. Note all laboratory safety policies at all times. You are required to wear lab coats and safety glasses while in the lab. You must wear your protective gear at all times that any lab work is underway. Failure to observe safety precautions may result in your being dismissed from the laboratory class. 3. Request all chemicals and materials that you may need from the stock room at least 30 mins. head of the scheduled experiment. At this stage in your studies, you are expected to be able to work independently and responsibly. 4. Written reports of laboratory work are due at the start of the following lab session. Reports that are late will be penalized for each day of late submission(10% deduction per day). 5. Laboratory techniques, including your preparedness and participation in each laboratory activity, good note-keeping and ability to work well with your partner will be graded accordingly. 6. Read and plan you work before every laboratory class. Prepare a p re-laboratory write-up at the start of the lab period and prior to starting your laboratory work.You will not be allowed to perform the experiment without a pre-lab write up. The pre lab should include the following sections,: Experiment #, Title of Experiment, Date, Objectives of the Experiment’ Theoretical Framework, Materials and Methods, Expected Outcome. Sign and Date each pre-lab write-up. During the conduct of the experiment, record all your raw data in the same notebook. 7. Written Reports should be written on a short-sized bond paper and will have the following components: Name, Laboratory partner/s, Discussion of Results, Calculation/s(if any), Question/s, and Answer/s, Conclusion/s, Comment on you and your partner’s contribution towards the successful completion of the laboratory activity.Submit your lab report as a group, write your group number and experiment number as the subject of the email. COMMON LABORATORY OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES 1. BUNSEN BURNER A . Lighting the Burner a. Examine the parts of the Bunsen burner. Make a sketch of the burner, label and state the function of its parts. b. Attach the rubber tubing from the burner to the gas outlet on the lab bench. Bring the lighted match or striker up 4-5 cm above the barrel while opening the gas valve. c. Adjust the gas supply so as to have a flame of not more than 8 cm high. Close the air holes of the burner and observe the appearance of the flame. Hold the porcelain dish on this flame for a moment.What is deposited on the porcelain dish? d. Open the air holes until the flame is pale blue and has two or more distinct cones. A slight buzzing or roaring sound is characteristic of the hottest flame from the burner. Too much air may blow the flame out. Adjust the air intake until the roaring stops. What is the effect on the flame upon opening of the air holes? Does this type of flame have the same effect on the porcelain dish? Why? Spray powdered charcoal on the flame and note its effect. What makes the flame luminous? e. When the best adjustment is reached, three distinct cones are visible. Always use this kind of flame unless directed otherwise. f.Extinguish the flame when it is not being used, by closing the gas valve. B. Determining the Flame Temperatures a. Wet a piece of cardboard and hold it vertically through the center of the flame, with the lower end of the cardboard resting against the top of the burner. b. Remove the cardboard as soon as it shows a tendency to char. From the scorched portions note the relative temperature of the different parts of the flame. c. Draw a sketch of the flame to illustrate the different regions. 2. GLASS MANIPULATION A. Cutting a. Place the glass tubing flat on the table. Make a single scratch with a sharp triangular file 30cm from one end of the glass tubing. b.Grasp the glass tubing with both hands and place the thumbs one cm beside the scratch. Position the thumbs such that they are opposite the scratch. c. Break th e glass tubing by applying a gentle pressure. If it does not yield to gentle pressure, make a deeper scratch. d. The edges of the cut glass tubing are sharp and should be polished by rotating it at the non-luminous portion of the burner’s flame. This is to prevent the sharp edges of the glass from ruining corks and rubber tubing as well as cutting your fingers. B. Bending a. Take a piece of glass tubing about 30 cm long and hold it lengthwise over the flame. b. To bend the glass tubing properly, it must be heated uniformly over a length of 5 to 8 cm.This can be done using a flame spreader. c. Roll the tube back and forth until it has become quite soft. d. When it has become sufficiently soft, (i. e. , the glass tubing begins to take a pink color and sag gently) take it out of the flame. e. Bend quickly to the desired angle (30 ° or 90 °) and hold until it hardens. Try to get a good idea of the angle before you begin to work so that you may work rapidly and secure the desi red bend at once. f. Make one right angle and one 30O bent glass tubing. NOTE: Reheating and re-bending produces unsightly and often frail apparatus. C. Drawing Out a. Roll the center of a 10cm glass tube over the flame until it softens.The tube must be constantly rotated, to prevent the softened portion from sagging. b. Quickly remove it from the flame, and while holding it in a vertical position, gently pull the ends apart until the bore at the stretched portion is of the desired diameter. c. Cut to the desired nozzle length and fire polish the tip. D. Boring corks and rubber stoppers a. Select a cork that will fit into the mouth of the flask or test tube. b. Soften by rolling it between the tabletop and the palm of your hand. Select a sharp cork borer one size smaller than the glass tube that will be inserted. c. Place the cork on the desk and gently twist the borer in until it is halfway through the cork.Then withdraw the borer and finish the hole from the other end of the cork. d. Smoothen the hole in the cork with a round file. e. If the hole is too small, enlarge it by carefully filing with a round file. Only small adjustment should be made in this way. f. Rubber stoppers are bored in the same manner as mentioned. Select a very sharp borer one size larger than the hole to be made, and wet it with glycerin. Proceed as in boring the cork, but do not apply too much pressure. E. Inserting a glass tubing through a cork/rubber stopper NOTE: This operation is the most common cause of accidents in the laboratory. a. Wet the cork and the glass tubing with water. b.Place your hand on the tubing 2-3 cm away from the stopper. Protect your hand with a towel. c. Simultaneously twist and push the tubing slowly and carefully through the hole. 3. CLEANING OF GLASSWARE a. Clean all glassware with a soap or detergent solution. Use a brush if appropriate. b. Once the glassware is thoroughly cleaned, rinse several times with tap water and then once or twice with distilled w ater. c. Roll each rinse around the entire inner surface of the glass wall for a complete rinse. Discard each rinse through the delivery point of the vessel (e. g. , beaker spout). d. Invert the clean glassware on a clean paper towel or rubber mat to dry.Do not dry any glassware over direct flame. e. The glassware is clean if, following the final rinse, no water droplets adhere to the clean part of the glassware. f. If you must use a piece of glassware while it is still wet, rinse it with the solution to be used in the manner described in step 5c below. 4. TRANSFERRING OF LIQUIDS/SOLUTIONS a. When the liquid or solution is to be transferred from a reagent bottle, remove the glass stopper and hold it between the fingers of the hand used to grasp the reagent bottle. Never lay the glass stopper on the laboratory bench; impurities may be picked up and thus contaminate the liquid when the stopper is returned. b.To transfer a liquid from one vessel to another, hold a stirring rod against the lip of the vessel containing the liquid and pour the liquid down the stirring rod, which, in turn, should touch the inner wall of the receiving vessel. Return the glass stopper to the reagent bottle. c. Do not transfer more liquid than is needed for the experiment; do not return any excess liquid or unused liquid to the original reagent bottle. 5. MEASURING VOLUME OF LIQUID/SOLUTIONS a. The eye should always be level with the meniscus when you are making a reading. b. For measurements of clear or transparent liquids/solutions, the volume is read using the lower meniscus. For colored liquids/solutions, the upper meniscus is used. 6. HEATING A LIQUID/SOLUTION IN A TEST TUBE NOTE: Never fix the position of the flame at the base of the test tube and never point the test tube to anyone.The contents may be ejected violently if the test tube is not heated properly. a. The test tube should be less than one third full. Hold the test tube with a test tube holder at an angle of about 45? w ith the cool flame. A cool flame is a nonluminous flame supplied with a reduced amount of fuel. b. Move the test tube circularly in and out of the flame, heating from top to bottom. 7. PRECIPITATION a. Place 2 mL of sodium chloride solution in a test tube and slowly add 2 mL of silver nitrate solution. Write the balanced chemical equation for this reaction. NOTE: Be careful in handling silver nitrate solution. This solution may leave dark stains on skin, clothes or bench top. b.The solid formed is the precipitate and in this case, the slightly soluble silver chloride. Allow the precipitate to settle. c. Add a few drops of silver nitrate solution. Continue addition until no precipitation is observed. Divide the mixture into two portions and keep these for procedure 8. 8. SEPARATING A LIQUID FROM A SOLID A. Filtration a. Preparation of the filter paper to be used for gravity filtration: i. Cut out a 5† x 5† piece of filter paper. Fold the filter paper in exact halves and f old it again crosswise into two. ii. Make a small tear in one corner. This tear seals the paper against the inflow of air to the underside of the filter paper. iii.Open the folded paper so as to form a cone. iv. Place it in a funnel. Moisten it with a little water and press it against the top wall of the funnel to form a seal. The filter paper must always be smaller than the funnel. v. Support the funnel with a clamp or a funnel rack. b. Transfer the precipitate formed from the previous activity by carefully pouring the mixture, with the aid of a glass rod, into the filter paper. The liquid that passes through the liquid is called the filtrate. c. The tip of the funnel should touch the wall of the receiving beaker to reduce any splashing of the filtrate. d. Fill the bowl of the funnel until it is less than two-thirds full. e.Always keep the funnel stem full with the filtrate; the weight of the filtrate creates a slight suction on the filter in the funnel, thus this hastens the filtr ation process. f. Set aside both precipitate and filtrate for the next two activities. B. Decantation a. Transfer the precipitate retained in the filter paper into a beaker by rinsing the filter paper with jets of water from a wash bottle. b. Allow the solid to completely settle at the bottom of the vessel for several minutes. c. Transfer the liquid (called supernatant) into another container with the aid of a clean stirring rod. d. Do this slowly so as not to disturb the solid. Is this method applicable for the separation of all solid-liquid mixtures? Why? e. Rinse the precipitate with water and decant again. f. Which of the two separation methods (i. e. decantation or filtration) is better in isolating the precipitate? Why? E. Evaporation a. Pour the filtrate obtained from 8A into the evaporating dish. Place the evaporating dish on a wire-gauze supported on an iron ring clamped to an iron stand. Heat the dish over a cool flame. b. Continue heating until crystals begin to appear. C over the dish with a watch glass and allow the contents to cool. The solid remaining after evaporation is called the residue. What is the composition of the residue? 9. WEIGHING a. Weigh 0. 5 g of sand. Weighing may be done on platform balance or on an analytical balance. Rough weighing (to the nearest half gram), can be done on the platform balance.The analytical balance is used to get more accurate mass measurements. b. The properties of the substance will often determine the nature of the container where it is to be weighed. Use a weighing paper, a watch glass, a beaker, or some container to measure the mass of the chemicals. c. Do not place the chemicals directly on the balance pan. When in doubt as to what container to use, ask your instructor. TECHNIQUE IN HANDLING CHEMICALS d. A reagent is a substance which has a definite composition and a set of specific properties. The strong solutions are marked â€Å"concentrated† and the weak solutions, â€Å"dilute†. Some examples of the reagents are: Sulfuric acidH2SO4Ammonia NH3Hydrochloric AcidHClSodium hydroxide NaOH Acetic acidCH3COOHCalcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 e. Before getting the desired amount, read the label twice to be sure it is the correct chemical at the right concentration. Transfer the needed amount into the receiving container. Once removed, these should never be returned. f. Do not take out more than what is needed to minimize waste. Do not return excess chemicals to the reagent bottle. In pouring reagents from bottles, don’t place the stopper on the table but hold it between your fingers. g. Never touch, taste or smell chemicals unless specifically directed to do so. ExPERIMENT Properties of MatterThis experiment presents several of the properties used to identify a sample of matter. The data gathered are interpreted by the use of some quantitative method. For safety and accuracy of results, the experimenter should make sure that all set-ups used should be properly checked for possible connection leaks and other errors. Stirring rod should be used to ensure uniform distribution of heat when heating liquids in an open container. The heat should also be regulated especially when heating closed set-ups. Laboratory techniques included are: measurement and transferring of liquids, weighing and heating of liquids and solids. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS 25 or 50-mL graduated cylinder |Thermometer |Cork and/or rubber stoppers | |50-mL distilling flask |Bunsen burner |Top loading balance | |250-mL beaker |Rubber tubings |Condenser | |25-mL Florence flask |Iron stand |Oil | |Test tube |Iron ring |Sulfur powder |2-3 iron clamps |Wire gauze |Isopropyl alcohol | | | |Lead pellets | PROCEDURE 1. BOILING POINT a) Measure 25 mL of isopropyl alcohol and record the initial temperature. 32 degrees a) Transfer it into a 50-mL distilling flask. Assemble the distillation set-up (consult the instructor). b) Warm the set-up gently with a Bunsen burner. Take temperature readings at one-minute time intervals until the liquid begins to boil, and two more minutes thereafter. c) Continue distilling until the flask is almost dry. Pour off the liquid still present in the flask. ) Transfer the distillate into the distilling flask and repeat the distillation process. e) Make a graph of your data with time on the x-axis and temperature on the y-axis. Compare the two graphs. f) Determine the boiling point of the liquid from the graphs. Look for the standard boiling point of isopropyl alcohol and get the % error of the boiling point obtained experimentally. 2. MELTING POINT a) Place about 1-gram of sulfur powder into a dry test tube. Clamp the test tube vertically into the oil bath. See to it that the solid is below the oil level. a) Hang the thermometer into the test tube such that it is covered by the solid and does not touch the sides and bottom of the test tube. ) Heat the oil bath gradually and take temperature readings at one-minute intervals until the solid has co mpletely liquefied, and two more minutes thereafter. c) Make a graph of your data with time on the x-axis and temperature on the y-axis. Determine the melting point of sulfur from the graph. Look for the standard melting point of sulfur and get the % error of the melting point obtained in the experiment. NOTE: Stir the oil bath so that the heat is uniformly distributed. 3. DENSITY OF A LIQUID a) Clean and dry the Florence flask. Weigh the dry flask and the rubber stopper on a top loading balance and record the mass. b) Fill the flask with distilled water until the liquid level is nearly to the brim.Put the stopper on the flask in order to drive all the air and excess water. Work the stopper gently into the flask so that it is firmly seated into position. c) Wipe any water on the outside of the flask and soak up all excess water from around the top of the stopper. d) Again, weigh the flask, which should be completely dry on the outside and full of water, and record the mass. e) Calcu late for the precise volume of the flask given the standard density of water, the temperature of the laboratory and the mass of water in the flask. f) Empty the flask, dry it and fill it with isopropyl alcohol. Stopper and dry the flask as you did when working with water.Record the weight of the flask filled isopropyl alcohol. g) Calculate the density of isopropyl alcohol and determine the % error using its standard density. 4. DENSITY OF A SOLID a) Use the same flask from the previous procedure for this part. Dry the flask completely and add small chunks of lead metal into the flask until it is about half full. b) Weigh the flask, with its stopper and the metal, and record the mass. Determine the mass of the metal in the flask. c) Fill the flask with water, leaving the metal in the flask, and then replace the stopper. Roll the metal around the flask to make sure that no air is trapped between the metal pieces. ) Refill the flask if necessary, and then weigh the dry stoppered flask full of water plus the metal sample. e) Compute for the density of the lead using the data obtained in this section and in part 3. Determine the density of the metal and compute for the % error. QUESTIONS 1. Interpret the graphs obtained in parts 1 and 2. What changes occur at the different regions of the graph? 2. What kind of properties are boiling point, melting point and density? 3. Which of these properties may be used to identify a sample of matter? Why? 4. Is one property sufficient to establish the density of the substance? 5. What is the identity of the distillate in Part 1? What is your basis?ExPERIMENT CHEMICAL CHANGES This experiment presents different types of chemical change. Some quantitative methods are included to emphasize proper data handling and interpretation of results. Formula writing and setting up of simple chemical equations are introduced. It is to be emphasized that the experimenter should always take note of any physical evidence that a chemical reaction is taking place. Such physical evidences include the formation of a precipitate, change in color of the solution or precipitate, evolution of a gas, and absorption or evolution of heat. ? Evolution of gas. This evolution may be quite rapid or it may be a â€Å"fizzing† sound. Appearance or Disappearance of precipitate. The nature of the precipitate is important; it may be crystalline, it may have color, it may merely cloud a solution. ? Evolution or Absorption of Heat. The reaction vessel becomes warm if the reaction is exothermic or cools if the reaction is endothermic. ? Change in color. A substance added to the system may cause a color change. Also included are the common laboratory operations such as measurement and transferring of liquids, precipitation, decantation, filtration, washing and transferring of precipitates, drying of solids, weighing, testing for acidity and basicity, and testing for completeness of a reaction.This experiment also emphasizes the need for gr adual mixing of reactants to make certain the maximum recovery of the product, and the importance of washing, to ensure the purity of the product. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS |50-mL graduated cylinder |Watch glass |Zinc dust | |250-mL beaker |Evaporating dish |0. 100 M Cu(NO3)2 | |250-mL Erlenmeyer flask |Pair of scissors |6. 00 M NH3 | |Funnel |Filter paper |6. 0 M NaOH | |Bunsen burner |Litmus paper |6. 00M HCl | |Stirring rod |Medicine Dropper |6. 00 M H2SO4 | PROCEDURE 1. Precipitation of Copper (II) hydroxide a) Measure 10-mL of 0. 100 M Cu(NO3)2 solution in a 250-mL beaker. a) Add dropwise with constant stirring about 0. 5 mL 6. 00 M NaOH solution. b) Place a piece of litmus paper on a dry watch glass and moisten it with the solution using a stirring rod. c) If it is not yet alkaline, add more NaOH. Record any change in color of the solution and describe the precipitate. 2.FORMATION OF COPPER (II) OXIDE a) Boil the contents of the beaker in part 1 for about 2 minutes with constant stirring to prevent â€Å"bumping† which may result in loss of material. The precipitate should change in color. b) Allow the copper (II) oxide precipitate to settle. Take note of the change in color of the precipitate. c) Test the supernate with a few drops of 6. 00M NaOH. If cloudiness is observed, continue the addition of the base until precipitation is complete. d) Heat the solution again with constant stirring, until all the precipitate has changed in color. Record the color changes that occur. What is the evidence of complete precipitation?What is the composition of the supernate? 3. CONVERSION OF COPPER (II) HYDROXIDE TO COPPER (II) SULFATE a. Let the precipitate settle until the supernate is clear. Decant the supernate through a filter paper into the Erlenmeyer flask. b. Wash the precipitate in the beaker using 10 mL of water. Let the precipitate settle and decant the wash water through the filter paper into the Erlenmeyer flask containing the filtrate. c. Repeat the process, so that the precipitate is washed a total of four times. d. Wash the same filter paper with about 1 mL 6. 00 M H2SO4 dropwise, catching the filtrate in the beaker containing copper (II) oxide precipitate. e.Rotate or stir the contents of the beaker to dissolve the solid. Add some more H2SO4 to dissolve the precipitate completely. f. Wash the filter paper again, this time with 10 mL water, catching the wash water in the same beaker. Record your observations. 4. REDUCTION OF Cu (II) IONS TO METALLIC COPPER a. To the solution (from 3), gradually add with constant stirring, about 1. 5 g zinc dust in minute amounts. CAUTION: Stir until no further reaction is observed before adding more zinc to make the solution colorless. b. Test for the completeness of the reaction by adding a few drops (1-2 drops) of the solution into a test tube containing about 1 mL of 6. 0 M NH3. If a colored solution is obtained, compare this with the control solution (prepare by adding a drop of 0. 100 M Cu(NO3)2 solution and 2 drops of NH3 to 1 mL water) and add more zinc into the solution with constant stirring. Repeat the process until the test with ammonia solution gives a colorless solution. c. Decant and discard the supernate in 4-b. Wash the precipitate in the beaker twice, each time using 10-mL portions of water. Decant and discard the wash water after each washing, taking care not to lose any solid. d. To the precipitate, add 10 mL water and 2 mL 6. 00 M HCl slowly and stir the contents until no more change is observed.Let the precipitate settle, decant and discard the supernate into a waste acid jar. e. Wash the precipitate twice, each time using 10-mL portions of water. Decant and discard the wash water. f. Transfer the entire solid in the beaker to a previous weighed filter paper. Use as little water as possible to wash out the solid from the beaker. Discard the filtrate and wash water. g. Fold the filter paper containing the solid and press this between pieces of dry f ilter paper to remove most of the water. Place the partially dried filter paper containing the solid on a watch glass, and air dry in your locker until the next period. Weigh the solid and the filter paper.Record all masses obtained. 5. OXIDATION OF COPPER a. Place a pinch of the weighed solid in an evaporating dish and heat the dish directly over a Bunsen burner. Observe and record your results. b. Submit the remaining solid, properly packaged and labeled, to your instructor. QUESTIONS 1. What type of process and/or chemical changes is observed in procedures 1-5? 2. Why must zinc be added very gradually to the solutions in procedure 4. a? 3. What is the purpose of the test using ammonia solution? 4. Why must HCl be added to the solid after the reaction with zinc dust is completed? 5. Why is it not advisable to dry the copper directly over a Bunsen flame? 6.Calculate the percent recovery in the experiment. Does your result refute the law of conservation of matter? Explain. ExPERIMEN T CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Matter is classified according to its various properties and the type of changes it undergoes. There are two general types of matter, substances and mixtures. Substances are further subdivided into two types, elements and compounds. Mixtures are also of two kinds, homogeneous and heterogeneous. This experiment aims to differentiate several samples of matter. The samples are subjected to different conditions like temperature and solubility in some solvents. Chemical changes are illustrated by chemical equations. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS Beakers |Evaporating dish |Sugar crystals | |250-mL Erlenmeyer flask |Test tubes |Sodium chloride | |Funnel |Thermometer |Iodine Crystals | |Bunsen burner |Mortar and Pestle |Sulfur powder | |Glass tubing |Filter paper |Lead (II) nitrate | |Watch glass |Litmus paper |Magnesium ribbon | |Medicine dropper |Starch solution | | PROCEDURE 1. ubstances, homogeneous and heterogeneuos mixtures a. Measure out one gram of refined sugar in the balance. Dissolve the sample in 50 mL tap water. Compare the appearance of the solution with that of distilled water. Set up a simple distillation apparatus using the Erlenmeyer flask, thermometer and glass tubing. b. Distill the sugar solution and make a boiling point curve on the graphing paper. Collect the sugar solution and make a boiling point curve of the isopropyl alcohol (from experiment 1). Compare the boiling point curve of the sugar solution with that of the isopropyl alcohol. Which of the two is a substance and which is a mixture? c.Test for the solubility of the powdered sulfur in water. Do the same with sodium chloride. Weigh out 0. 5 g of each chemical on the analytical balance. d. Grind the two together in a mortar. Note the appearance of the mixture. With a hand lens, observe the mixture more closely. Can you distinguish the sulfur from the sodium chloride crystals? e. Transfer half of the mixture into a beaker containing about 15 mL of water. Stir thoroughl y then filter the resulting mixture. Identify the filtrate and the residue on the filter paper. f. Transfer the filtrate into an evaporating dish. Heat this to boiling. When the crystals begin to form, cover the dish with watch glass to prevent sputtering.When the crystals are almost dry, stop heating the dish. g. Heat the other half of the original mixture in an evaporating dish until melting is observed. Examine the resulting product closely using a hand lens. Can you now differentiate the two components? Test its solubility in water. Record all observations. 2. ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS a. Take two small crystals of iodine. Place one crystal inside the test tube and heat it gently. Compare the heated and the unheated crystals with respect to state, color, solubility in water and their behavior in starch solution. b. Take a pinch of lead nitrate crystals. Observe carefully and list down its observable physical properties.Heat it over a burner, gently at first, and then strongly after wards until no further change is observed. List down your observations. 3. METALS AND NON-METALS a. Clamp a medium-sized test tube horizontally. Take a piece of magnesium ribbon and insert one end into a 10-cm piece of glass tubing. b. Heat the magnesium ribbon. When it begins to burn, insert the burning magnesium ribbon into the test tube until the metal has burned completely. c. Dissolve the residue in 3-mL water. Test the acidity and basicity of the solution with litmus paper. Repeat using a pinch of sulfur. QUESTIONS 1. Write all chemical equations involved. 2. Does the appearance of the sugar solution differ from that of distilled water? 3.In part 1, which is an example of a homogeneous and heterogeneous mixture? How are the two types of mixtures differentiated? 4. What is the composition of the crystals formed after evaporation of the filtrate in 1. b? 5. Based on the results of part 1, how are substances different from mixtures? 6. Is there any evidence that would indicate a change in the identities of each of the substances heated? What are these evidences? 7. Differentiate the oxides of metals and non-metals. 8. From the results in part 2, define elements, compounds, metals and non-metal. 9. Iodine is liberated from seaweeds by the action of sulfuric acid on the ash of the seaweeds. How is it collected from the ashes? ExPERIMENTThe Language of Chemistry: Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Nomenclature is the system of naming substances. A systematic nomenclature was established by an organization of chemists called the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The standardized rules developed by the IUPAC are summarized below. 1. Binary Compounds 1. 1 Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals If two nonmetals form a compound, the less electronegative is written first, followed by the more electronegative element. The same pattern is used in naming; the less electronegative is mentioned first, followed by the stem of the name of the more e lectronegative ending in –ide.When more than one compound can be formed from the combination of two elements, Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element. |CO2 |carbon dioxide | |PCl3 |phosphorous trichloride | |Cl2O |Dichlorine mon(o)oxide* | |HCl |Hydrogen chloride | *this is omitted when the more electronegative element begins with a vowel Greek Prefix |Number |Greek Prefix |Number | |Mono- |1 | Hexa- |6 | | Di- |2 | Hepta- |7 | | Tri- |3 | Octa- |8 | | Tetra- |4 | Nona- |9 | | Penta- |5 | Deca- |10 | 1. 2 Binary Compounds Containing a Metal and a Nonmetal The metal is always written first, in both the name and the formula. As with all binary compounds, the nonmetal takes an –ide ending.There are two types that we must consider: metals with fixed (only one) oxidation number and those with variable (more than one) oxidation numbers. 1. 2. 1 Cations Monatomic ions cations retain their names as elements. The NH4+ ion, ammonium ion is named a s if it were a metal ion because of its saltlike properties. |Li+ |lithium ion | |Na+ |sodium ion | |Mg2+ |magnesium ion | |Al3+ |aluminum ion | 1. 2. 2 Monatomic AnionsMonatomic anions are named using their names as elements and the suffix –ide. |C4- |carbide | |N3- |nitride | |O2- |oxide | |H- |hydride | 1. 2. 3 Metals with Fixed Oxidation Numbers The metals with fixed oxidation numbers are the IA and IIA, Aluminum and Zinc. All other metals have variable oxidation numbers. Note that no prefixes are used. NaCl |Sodium chloride | |Na2S |Sodium sulfide | |AgBr |silver bromide | |Al2O3 |aluminum oxide | 1. 2. 4 Metals with Variable Oxidation Numbers In a binary compound of a metal of this type with a nonmetal, the oxidation number of the metal must be indicated in the name. There are two methods of doing this, the classical system and the Stock or Roman numeral system. 1. 2. 4. Classical System This system can only be used for metals having two oxidation states. An –ic ending is used for the metal with the highest oxidation state and an –ous ending is used for the lowest. Also, the Latin name is used for iron (ferric and ferrous), copper (cupric and cuprous), tin (stannic and stannous) and lead (plumbic or plumbous). The classical system does not indicate the actual oxidation state. 1. 2. 4. 2 Stock System or Roman Numeral System The actual oxidation state is designated by a Roman Numeral placed in parenthesis immediately following the name of the metal. This is useful especially if the metal has more than two oxidation states. Formula |Classical System |Stock System | |CuCl |Cuprous chloride |copper(I) chloride | |CuCl2 |Cupric chloride |copper(II) chloride | |FeCl2 |ferrous chloride |iron(II) chloride | |FeCl3 |ferric chloride |iron(III) chloride | 1. 3. Compounds Named Like Binary Compounds Few other compounds take an –ide ending, like binary compounds. These include the following: |OH- |hydroxide |O22- |peroxide | |CN- |cyanide | |NH2- |amide | |I3- |triiodide | |N3- |azide | 1. 4. Trivial Names Some common binary compounds are assigned trivial names that have been assigned arbitrarily. These are universally used that they are allowed by the IUPAC rules of nomenclature. H2O |water | |NH3 |ammonia | |PH3 |phosphine | |AsH3 |arsine | 1. 5. Binary Acids A binary compound composed of hydrogen with a more electronegative element can act as a binary acid in water solution. For acids of this types, the prefix hydro- is added, and then the –ide ending is replaced by –ic acid. HF |hydroflouric acid | |HCl |hydrochloric acid | |HBr |hydrobromic acid | |HI |hydroiodic acid | 2. Ternary and Higher Compounds 2. 1 Oxyacids and Salts Oxyacids are composed of a nonmetal with more than one oxidation state, along with hydrogen and oxygen. A salt of oxyacid is formed when one or more of the hydrogen ions of an acid is replaced by a cation. The prefix hypo-, is used to denote the lowest oxidation state of the non metal with the characteristic ending –ous and the prefix per- is used to denote the highest oxidation state with the ending –ic. For acids whose names end in –ous, the corresponding salt ends with the suffix –ite, and those whose names ends in –ic, the name of the salt ends in –ate. Acid |Oxyanion |Salt | |H2SO3 |sulfurous acid |SO32- |sulfite |Na2SO3 |sodium sulfite | |H2SO4 |sulfuric acid |SO42- |sulfate |Fe2SO4 |iron(II) sulfate | |HClO |hypochlorous acid |ClO- |hypochlorite |NaClO |sodium hypochlorite | |HClO2 |chlorous acid |ClO2- |chlorite |KClO2 |potassium chlorite | |HClO3 |chloric acid |ClO3- |chlorate |NaClO3 |sodium chlorate | |HClO4 |perchloric acid |ClO4- |perchlorate |NaClO4 |sodium perchlorate | 2. 2 Salts of Polyprotic Acids These types of salts are formed when one or more hydrogen ions in polyprotic acids or acids with more than one replaceable H+ ion (e. g. , H2S, H3PO4, H2SO4) is/are replaced by metal ions. In naming, the word hydrogen is added to the name of the oxyanion. |NaH2PO4 |sodium dihydrogenphosphate |Na2HPO4 |disodium hydrogenphosphate | |Na3PO4 |trisodium phosphate | |NaHS |sodium hydrogensulfide | EXERCISES 1. Name the following. a. FeI2___________________________________ b. I2___________________________________ c. FeCl3___________________________________ d. Fe2(SO4)3___________________________________ e. FeS___________________________________ f. NCl3___________________________________ g. H2CO3___________________________________ h. CaCO3___________________________________ i.Be2C___________________________________ j. SnSO4___________________________________ k. (NH4)2S___________________________________ l. N2O4___________________________________ 2. Write the correct chemical formula a. Barium chloride___________________ b. Stannous nitrate___________________ c. Stannic nitrate___________________ d. Aluminum carbide___________________ e. Magnesium phosphate___________________ f. Nitrogen dio xide___________________ g. Ammonium sulfate___________________ h. Barium carbonate___________________ i. Sodium carbonate___________________ j. Calcium hydrogen phosphate___________________ k. Disulfur dichloride___________________ 3. Complete the following table Formula |Name as acid |Formula of sodium |Name of salt | | | |salt | | |HNO3 | | | | |HNO2 | | | | |HBrO | | | | |HBrO2 | | | | |HBrO3 | |NaBrO3 | | |HBrO4 | | | | 4. Name the following as binary compounds or as salts from the anions of polyprotic or oxo acids. a. NaIO___________________________________ b. K2HPO4___________________________________ c. Na2SO3___________________________________ d. KMnO4___________________________________ e.BaSO3___________________________________ f. FeSO4___________________________________ g. HClO3___________________________________ h. Na2SO4___________________________________ i. Fe(NO3)3___________________________________ j. Ca(ClO2)2___________________________________ 5. The spaces below rep resent portions of some of the main groups and periods of the periodic table. In the proper squares, write the correct formulas for the chlorides, oxides and sulfates of the elements of Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Likewise, write the formulas of the compounds of sodium, calcium and aluminum with the elements of Groups 6 and 7. Two of the squares have been completed as examples. Period |Group 1 |Group 2 |Group 3 |Group 6 |Group 7 | |2 | LiCl | |(Omit sulfate) | | | | |Li2O | | | | | | |Li2SO4 | | | | | |3 | | | |Na2S | | | | | | |CaS | | | | | | |Al2S3 | | |4 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |5 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ExPERIMENT WATER OF HYDRATION Most solid chemical compounds will contain some water if they have been exposed to the atmosphere for any length of time.In most cases the water is present in very small amounts, and is mere adsorbed on the surface of the crystals. Other solid compounds contain larger amounts of water that is chemically bound in the crystal. These compounds are usually ionic salts. The water that is present in these salts is called the water of hydration and is usually bound to the cations in the salt. In this experiment you will study some of the properties of hydrates. You will identify the hydrates in a group of compounds, observe the reversibility of the hydration reaction, and test some substances for efflorescence or deliquescence. Finally you will be asked to determine the amount of water lost by a sample of unknown hydrate on heating.From this amount, if given the formula or the molar mass of the anhydrous sample, you will be able to calculate the formula of the hydrate itself. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS |watch glass |iron ring |crucible tongs | |test tubes |iron stand |triangular clay | |Bunsen burner |crucible |desiccators | PROCEDURE 1. Identification of Hydrates. Place about 0. g of the compounds listed below in small, dry test tubes, one compound to a tube. Observe carefully the behavior of each c ompound when you heat it gently with a burner flame. If droplets of water condense on the cool upper walls of the test tube, this is evidence that the compound may be a hydrate. Note the nature and the color of the residue. Let the tube cool and try to dissolve the residue in a few cm3 of water, warming very gently if necessary. A true hydrate will tend to dissolve in water, producing a solution with a color very similar to that of the original hydrate. If the compound is a carbohydrate, it will give off water on heating and will tend to char.The solution of the residue in water will often be caramel colored. Nickel chloride Potassium chloride Sodium tetraborate (borax) Sucrose Potassium dichromate Barium chloride 2. Reversibility of Hydration. Gently heat a few crystals ~0. 3 g, of hydrated cobalt (II) chloride, CoCl2(6H2O, in an evaporating dish until the color change appears to be complete. Dissolve the residue in the evaporating dish in a few cm3 of water from your wash bottle. Heat the resulting solution to boiling (CAUTION! ), and carefully boil it to dryness. Note any color changes. Put the evaporating dish on the lab bench and let it cool. 3. Deliquescence and Efflorescence.Place a few crystals of each of the compounds listed below on separate watch glasses and put them next to the dish of CoCl2 prepared in Part B. Depending upon their composition and the relative humidity (amount of moistures in air), the samples may gradually either lose water of hydration to, or pick up water from, the air. They may also remain unaffected. Any changes in crystal structure, color, or appearance of wetness should be noted. Observe the samples occasionally during the rest of the laboratory period. Since the changes tend to occur slowly, your instructor may have you compare your samples with some that were set out in the laboratory a day or two earlier. Na2CO3(10H2O (washing soda) CaCl2KAl(SO4)2(12H2O (alum) CuSO4(5H2O 4. Percent Water in a Hydrate. Clean a porcelain cr ucible and its cover with 6 M HNO3. Any stains that are not removed by this treatment will not interfere with this experiment. Rinse the crucible and cover with distilled water. Put the crucible with its cover slightly ajar on a clay triangle and heat with a burner flame, gently at first and then to redness for about 2 minutes. Allow the crucible and cover to cool, and then weigh them to 0. 001 g on an analytical balance. Handle the crucible with clean crucible tongs. Obtain a sample of unknown hydrate from the stockroom and place about a gram of sample in the crucible.Weigh the crucible, cover, and sample on the balance. Put the crucible on the clay triangle, with the cover in an off-center position to allow the escape of water vapor. Heat again gently at first and then strongly, keeping the bottom of the crucible at red heat for about 10 minutes. Center the cover on the crucible and let it cool to room temperature. Weigh the cooled crucible along with its cover and contents. Exami ne the solid residue. Add water until the crucible is two thirds full and stir. Warm gently if the residue does not dissolve readily. Does the residue appear to be soluble in water? DATA AND OBSERVATIONS A. Identification of Hydrates |Water appears |Color of residue |Water soluble |Hydrate | |Nickel chloride | | | | | |Potassium chloride | | | | | |Sodium tetraborate | | | | | |Sucrose | | | | | |Potassium dichromate | | | | | |Barium chloride | | | | | B. Reversibility of Hydration Summarize your observations on CoCl2(6H2O. Is the dehydration and hydration of CoCl2 reversible? C. Deliquescence and Efflorescence |Observation |Conclusion | |Na2CO3(10H2O | | | |CaCl2 | | | |KAl(SO4)2(12H2O (alum) | | | |CuSO4(5H2O | | | D. Percent water in a Hydrate |Mass of crucible and cover | | |Mass of crucible, cover, and solid hydrate | | |Mass of crucible, cover, and residue | | Mass of solid hydrate | | |Mass of residue | | |Mass of water lost | | |Percentage of water in the unknown hydrate | | |Formula mass of anhydrous salt (if furnished) | | |Number of moles of water per mole of unknown hydrate | | ExPERIMENT GASESThis experiment illustrates three of the common gas laws: Boyle’s law, Charles and Gay-Lussac’s law and Graham’s law. Boyle’s law states that the volume, V, of a certain quantity of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to its pressure, P, at a given temperature and amount of gas. Charles’ and Gay-Lussac’s law states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature, at a certain pressure and amount of gas. Graham’s law describes that the velocity of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass. The first two gas laws will be validated using plots of the properties involved. Graham’s law will be determined by comparing the velocities of two sample gases. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS Glass syringe |250 or 400-mL beaker |Black cardboard | |Syringe hol der |Iron stand |Ruler | |Thermometer |Iron ring |Graphing paper | |Glycerol |Wire gauze |Concentrated HCl | |Modeling clay |Glass tubing

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Human Progress is Indeed Slow Essay

In the world today, people like to believe that they have evolved into societies of equality, justice, and fairness. Yet around the world there are many ‘modern’ societies that still treat women as second-class citizens. This is clearly evident in the novel Princess, the story of women in Saudi Arabia, introduced through the life of a Saudi Arabian Princess. Jean Sasson was asked by Princess Sultana to use her life to exhibit to the Western World how primitive customs still determine women’s roles in the Saudi society. In Princess, Sasson argues that lack of change in Saudi Arabian society is the cause of men’s mistreatment of women through her repetition and severe imagery. Throughout the novel, Sasson continually uses multiple synonyms of the term ‘public’ to emphasize the idea that society is the ruling force of the country. As various situations are described, Sasson uses several forms of this term for Sultana’s reactions, which emphasizes the importance of public input in Saudi life. The first appearance of this term is shown as Sultana talks about the beating of local wife and the response it receives. She says, â€Å"it is never the fault of the man in the Middle East†¦public congratulations are given from the man of the region for the fathers â€Å"notable† act of upholding the commands of the Prophet† (Sasson 46). Sasson uses the term â€Å"public† to show the reader that acts like this are socially acceptable. By focusing on this term, Sasson shows the reader how universal and unrestricted mistreatment towards women is. The word ‘upholding’ makes this oppression seem as though it is a recognized and encouraged practice that women have very little chance of avoiding because of society’s approval. Sasson shows that women must learn and keep their place in society because the public will always find women at fault, and defend the men. Sasson demonstrates how Saudi men are certainly the prominent sex in Saudi Arabia, but it is the public that gives them their power by allowing and even supporting their behaviors. Sasson then looks at a synonym of ‘public’, ‘social order’, to demonstrate the idea of ‘us versus them’, with ‘us’ being Saudi women and ‘them’ being the society at large. As Sultana begins to understand that she will be forced to fight for equality, the idea that the public will keep her in her place surfaces. She says, â€Å"I had no doubt that my life as a woman would be a perpetual struggle against the social order of my land† (Sasson 64). By changing the idea of ‘public’ to ‘social order’, Sasson creates this sense of a group that is in charge of the Saudi Arabian world. By incorporating ‘order’ into society, it makes reader feel as though there is a specific structure or classification that everyone in Saudi society must follow. It shows the reader that there are rules, though they may be harsh or unfair, that must be followed to maintain the integrity and sustainability of Saudi Arabia. By using the word ‘perpetual’, Sasson focuses on the idea that women will always have to battle against the system that gives men their power to keep women repressed. Throughout Princess, Sasson shows the reader how society is a dominating force and that it would first have to change before any other change comes about. To further broaden her idea of the Saudi Arabian public, Sasson uses the word ‘culture’ so that the reader gains an idea of how much influence the public has over its people. Very early in the novel, Sultana reflects on the history of her country and how it differs from many other sophisticated countries throughout the world. She says, â€Å"From my reading, I know most civilized successors of early cultures smile at the primitive ignorance of their ancestors† (Sasson 5). Sasson makes a jab at Saudi society, making them appear to be uncivilized and primitive. Rather than moving beyond the ignorance of past cultures, she represents Saudis embracing the old, obsolete, and nascent ideas. By including that cultures today ‘smile’ at the past, Sasson makes it seem like other countries in the modern world are amused by how old-fashioned Saudi Arabia still is. Again she points out to the reader that it is the Saudi public that instills men’s basis for their interactions with women. Sasson insets this observation very early in the novel in order to distill the idea that while most civilized countries have progressed beyond how their ancestors lived, Saudi Arabia is still living the way they always have, with men in total control. Sasson also continually uses the term ‘tradition’ to emphasize the continuation of customs in Saudi society. As Sasson looks into the life of her main character, she continually uses this term negatively to emphasize how it is the fault of these traditions that causes the unhappiness of Saudi women. She muses, â€Å"I was beginning to entertain the notion that some women might be happy in my land, in spite of traditions that do not belong in a civilized society† (124). Sasson uses tradition in an unorthodox way by making the readers see it as something damaging. Tradition in this case is not a happy family custom or religious ritual, rather it is an unfortunate habit of society that causes the discontent of Saudi women. Sasson also uses the idea that these traditions keep Saudi Arabia from becoming a civilized nation. She makes it appear that their civilization continues to exist in a world without advancement, education, or refinement. In order for women to achieve a level of happiness in their homeland, the customs and ideas must first change. Sasson includes this reflection to show the reader that by maintaining the same traditions for centuries, it is hindering women’s progress and allowing the continuance of a male dominated society. Another instance of this use of ‘tradition’ occurs when Sasson describes the process Sultana has to endure before her wedding. Even on what is supposed to be the happiest day of a woman’s life, Sultana still has to fight against the traditions of her society; â€Å"Muslims are equipped with hot water and soap†¦we no longer had to use dirt for such purposes. I loudly pronounced that if the Prophet could speak in this new age of modern amenities, I knew he would end such silly traditions† (Sasson 128). Sasson again incases the idea of tradition with something primitive. She makes them seem barbaric and crude, rather than modern. Her usage of Saudi Arabia’s holy man and the idea that even he would oppose the current practices emphasizes that they are archaic and unsophisticated. By referring to the traditions as ‘silly’, Sasson appears to be laughing at them, showing they are subject to mockery. She points out to the reader that regardless of how long a tradition may have been enacted in society, some need to be disbanded for the benefit and improvement of its people. Sasson inserts this outburst by Sultana to show the reader how ridiculous she finds the traditions of the land, and that even their highest religious leader would feel the same were he alive. As always, primitive customs determine women’s roles in Saudi society. Sasson uses imagery to further explain the idea that the people of Saudi Arabia are fixed as a society and there is little effort to change. These images are used to convey a picture as to how Saudi society is unchanging in its ways. Sasson shows the idle nature of Saudi society as she describes her reaction to arranged marriages; â€Å"This one issue alone proved that we Saudis were like uninspired mules; we trod the same weary track as the mules before is even if it led us to plunge off a cliff† (Sasson 128). As she describes this scene, the reader can see the repetitiveness and monotony that keeps any sort of change from reaching the women in Saudi Arabia. Describing people as ‘mules’ helps the reader to visualize the idea that Saudi people have no choice in what they do; it shows that their paths are simple and obstinate. Referencing an animal also makes the Saudi people seems like a less developed race. The uses of ‘trod’ and ‘weary’ show the reader how indifferent and oppressed Saudi women are within their society. She adds the phrase ‘plunge off a cliff’ so the reader can clearly see the detrimental effects of having a fixed path. This imagery allows the readers to see the people of Saudi Arabia trudging one behind another with no hope but to fall into the void their society has created. Sasson shows the reader that Saudi society seems comfortable in its ways and is unwilling to change. Another instance of this imagery occurs when Sasson describes Sultana’s life with her husband. As a married woman, Sultana has to follow both how society expects her to live, as well as her husband; â€Å"Our lives were fixed on a carefully charted course† (Sasson 154). This imagery allows the reader to see that it is not just the women who are expected to live a certain way, but the men as well. Sasson uses ‘carefully’ to make it seem as though someone sat and attentively determined the best way for couples to live. A ‘charted course’ helps the reader to see that couples have a blueprint for their life together; it’s as though they are on a voyage that is steering them in the proper direction. Society has established a specific way for its people to live, and they are expected to stay within the customary confinements. Again, Sasson instills this idea that Sultana is stuck, unable to move toward progress for women, emphasizing that she can do nothing but follow those before her. Sasson further uses imagery to show the consequences of falling out of the line society has created. When a friend of Sultana tries to fight against the rules that oppress her, society is there to keep her in her place; â€Å"A woman who had embodied the life and hope of our land, a women now living in utter blackness, without sight or sound to sustain her life† (Sasson 194). Sasson uses the term ‘blackness’ to illustrate that the girl was isolated and her life was in ruin. The ending clause allows the reader to visualize the complete solitude that this woman endured because she tried to change the set outcome of her life. From the ending clause, the reader can sense the hope this woman had and the desolation created from it. Sasson’s use of ‘embodied’ makes it seen that a single girl is holding the hope for a better life for women, yet that hope is being erased. By embodying life and hope, it indicates to the reader how important one woman’s actions can be for so many others. Society is determined to stamp out all of the women that do not follow the roles that have been assigned to them. Sasson demonstrates for the reader how women see hope for social change while men feel the danger of any change in a society that differs from the way it has always been. Through the novel, Sasson exposes the causes of mistreatment brought upon Saudi Arabian women in the form of cultural immobility. Her language in the text demonstrates how years of societal reinforcement has led to Saudi men’s rationality for treating women as a lower class of people. Sasson uses synonyms of the term ‘public’ throughout the text to remind the reader that this term is an underlying cause of women’s mistreatment. The usage of the term ‘tradition’ with a negative connotation helps the reader to understand that practices of the past are not always practical in present day and can deter social progress. She uses severe imagery to display the mindlessness of blindly following past generations. Sasson uses these tools to express that men’s oppression of women is due to the stagnant nature of Saudi society. Works Cited Sasson, Jean. Princess. Marietta, GA: Windsor-Brook Books, LLC: 2001. Print.

Monday, July 29, 2019

The Role of Leadership in Organisational Change

In discussing the role of leadership in organisational change, one must first understand the rudiments of leadership and theories that surround it, understand what change is and the essential qualities that a leader must possess to bring about change.Defining LeadershipThere is much literature and research in the areas of leadership and management with many writers differentiating the two. A common conclusion is that a good manager may not be a good leader. So what is the difference between them? French, R., et al, (2011) says that while managers engage in solving problems and supervising work, leaders do not just instruct people on what to do. Leaders inspire and motivate the people who follow and support them thereby creating opportunities for the long-term. An environment where leadership is mentioned a lot and developed is the military. However, the command-and-control â€Å"leadership† where an officer barks orders to his troops is not leadership because he is legally aut horised to do it (Cohen, 2010).In support of this, Buchanan and Huczynski (1985) say that it is a â€Å"social process† where one person influences other’s behaviours without using threats of violence. By the latter definition, we can surmise that what goes on in the army is certainly far from leadership as threats are a way of life in the military! In the case of the military officer, he is said to be endowed with Formal Leadership, giving him formal authority over his men. When a staff has access to resources, information or has specialised skills, he may be viewed as an Informal Leader as he exerts influence over others who may not be their subordinates nor even be in the same department as them (French, et al, 2011).So, while managers make things happen because the company says they are authorised to do so, leaders achieve the company’s objectives by influencing their colleagues or subordinates to co-operate (Rosen Bach & Taylor, 1993). Lussier & Achua (2007 ) say that mutual influence between a leader and those he leads reach their organisational goals by making changes together. According to Fielder (1967), the acid test of a leader is his ability to achieve greater performance for his organisation. Hence, studies of leadership must be related to how the leader improves management control strategies and how he regulates work place behaviour (Thomson & McHugh,  2002).According to Cohen (2010), there are 8 laws that he termed â€Å"universal laws† which forms the heart of leadership. Though these 8 things that leaders must do are simple, the absence of one can make a difference between success and failure. Although success cannot be guaranteed, abiding by these 8 laws, one can increase the chances of success: 1.Maintaining absolute integrity2.Being technically competent 3.Communicating expectations 4.Show exemplary commitment 5.Expect positive results 6.Looking after the interest of your people 7.Putting duty before self 8.Lead ing from the frontSECTION 2 : Theories on LeadershipAccording to Bass (1990), the three basic theories of leadership are the Trait Theory, Great Event Theory and Transformation Theory. Robbins (1996) had a different view and wrote that the three theories important to leadership development are Trait Theory, Behaviour Theory and Situational Theory. French, et al, (2011) summarised and divided the theories on leadership into 2 categories: Traditional Theories and New Theories. Traditional Theories are further grouped into Theories on leader traits and behaviours and situational leadership. New theories refer to Charismatic Leadership and Transformational Leadership. See diagram below.Trait theories on leadership were developed from research which tried to identify attributes that great leaders were born with which differentiates them from non-leaders. How effective these leaders are depends on the influence the leader wields over his subordinate’s performance, satisfaction and overall effectiveness (Derue, et al, 2011). Galton’s (1869) view that these immutable traits are only found in leaders born with them and they cannot be developed has been challenged and criticized by many for over a hundred years. However, research has continued on linking personality traits on effectiveness of leaders and showed that successful leaders possess  personality traits that impact their success.This helps organisations in their selection, training and development of potential leaders (Derue et al., 2011). In Bass’s (1990) Great Event Theory, leaders are created when great changes or crisis happen driving certain characteristics to be forged in individuals, enhancing their performance. This theory predisposes that leadership creation is still involuntary and not proactive unlike the Transformational Leadership Theory where anyone can learn skills on how to lead. It would appear that leaders are not ‘born’ but they are shaped by their environm ent, including upbringing and career. (French, et al, 2011)Criticisms of the trait theories led to the development of behaviour theories theorizing that actions and behaviour exhibited by a leader and not his personality is what identifies him as one. In late 1940s, University of Michigan conducted studies concluding that there are 2 types of leadership; Worker-oriented leadership and Task-oriented leadership. While the former is focussed on employee welfare, the latter concentrates on achievement of organisational objectives. Behavioural theory explains leadership vis-à  -vis the behaviour of leaders but does not consider the situation or the environment that the leader is operating in. The criticism is that given different situations, the same leadership behaviours may not be observed.Shortcomings of the behaviour theories led to Situational Contingency Theories of Fiedler (1967), House (1974), Hersey and Blanchard (1988) and Kerr and Jermier (1978). Horner (1997), a situational theorist, says that an effective leader should be able to adapt his leadership style according to the work situation he is in. The leadership styles identified by House’s (1974) Path-Goal theory are Directive, Supportive, Participative and Achievement-oriented styles. Contemporary leadership theorists like House (1974) and Conger and Kanungo (1998) researched on Charismatic Leadership.They wrote that certain attitudes and attributes can be bundled together to determine charisma in a leader. What they do and how they do it to influence the desired actions from their followers is how charismatic leaders are successful as leaders (French, et al, 2011). Charisma is a key component of transformational leadership and as such, many of its characteristics are also found in successful transformational leaders. So while charismatic leaders may not be transformational leaders, transformational leaders need to be charismatic to achieve their mission of change (DuBrin, 2010).DuBrin  (20 10) wrote that transformational leaders display attributes that distinguish them from others. Some attributes include charisma, high emotional intelligence, visioning skills, communication skills, give feedback, recognize subordinate’s achievements, practice empowerment, innovative and high moral reasoning. Bass (1990) distinguished between Transactional and Transformational leadership saying that the former has to do with daily communications and exchanges between a leader and his subordinates. This is usually task-based and routine. Transformational leadership, on the other hand, enables subordinates to broaden their goals and elevate performance beyond expectations with the use of charisma, inspiration, intellectual stimulation, and individualised consideration.SECTION 3 : Organisational ChangeThe mother of all clichà ©s, â€Å"The only constant in life is change†, sums up rather neatly that all organisations, large or small, simple or complex, will face changes wi thin itself and in its environment. Writers have consensus that at this day and age, change is a much larger issue than decades past as the rate of change, especially for technological change, is increasing at an exponential rate (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Burnes, 2004; Senior, 2002). Being omni-present in organisations at all levels, the importance of the leader’s ability to assess its present stage, evaluate it against its desired state, define its performance gaps and plan organisational changes to reach the desired end cannot be emphasized more (Burnes, 2004).Burnes (2004) goes on to say that organisational strategy and change are inseparable. According to Moran and Brightman (2001), because of the continually changing needs of stakeholders internally and externally, a good leader will also be continuously planning the organisation’s direction, its capabilities and structure to meet those changes. Because organisational change is of paramount importance, the s kills that a leader must have to effect changes successfully are highly sought after (Senior, 2002). In fact, managers today may find that their primary task in an environment of globalisation, technological innovation, constantly changing demographics, deregulation and knowledge explosion, is to provide leadership for organisational change (Graetz, 2000)Organisational change can be planned or unplanned. Unplanned changes occur  spontaneously without any conscious effort on the part of the manager to effect change (French, et al, 2011). It is usually due to changes in the conditions of the environment and is reactive in nature. Planned change happens when the manager takes proactive measures to address a performance gap to get to desired outcomes that meet organisational goals and objectives. Although it is generally accepted that in a highly competitive environment, change is a necessity to survive, Balogun and Hope Hailey (2004) found that about 70 per cent of all plans for orga nisational change fail. According to Dunphy and Stace (1993), there are 4 characteristics in the scale of the change. They are Fine Tuning, Incremental Adjustment, Modular Transformation and Corporate Transformation.In Fine Tuning, the leader makes very small changes to processes, human capital, structure and strategy so they work coherently to reach the organisational goal. It is usually done within the divisional or departmental level and is referred to as convergent change (Nelson, 2003) Similar to fine tuning, Incremental Adjustment involves making slightly more changes to managerial processes, corporate strategies and structures but not to the extent of radical change (Senior, 2002). The difference is that the changes are bigger here. In Modular Transformation, the scale of change has move from being intra-departmental to departmental-wide or division-wide alignments.However, change in this category has not reached organisation-wide, which is discussed next. Major changes to ke y executives, restructuring of a division and downsizing a department are examples (Dunphy & Stace, 1993). Finally, Corporate Transformation which encompasses radical changes in mission, vision and core values, major strategic direction shifts, organisational restructuring and changes in top management and key appointments, is the largest of the 4 types of change (Dunphy & Stace, 1993). The key difference between corporate and modular transformations is that the former is organisation-wide, which means that every person in the organisation is affected. SECTION 4 : The Process of Change Beckhard & Gleicher (1969) wrote on a formula for change. This formula is sometimes referred to as Gleicher’s Formula. The formula shows the forces  that drive change and the aims to predict when change will be successful.This formula explains that leaders in an organisation need to be firstly, unhappy with how things are going and must know where they want to head towards. If D is absent, th en the organisation may be complacent and may not want to move from their position. D without V will mean that the organisation has no direction for change. Even if D and V are present, without taking the first positive step, change will just be an idea; hence, action must be taken.Therefore the product of D, V and F cannot be zero which means that any of the 3 values cannot be zero. If any of the 3 is absent, the drive to change will not overcome resistance. The other factor to consider is the magnitude of D, V and F against the magnitude of R. The product of D, V and F must be greater than R for there to be change. The greater the product, the greater the probability that change will happen. However, this formula does not guarantee that the change will be successful. For change to be successful, change leaders or change agents must have attributes to lead change.There are many reasons why people resist change and it usually has to do with the fear of the unknown. As a result, they will find ways to slow change down or sabotage it so it does not happen (Lines, 2004). Instead of trying to overcome resistance, leaders should take it as a form of feedback and understand why the employee perceives threats to win them over and achieve change objectives (French, et al, 2011).SECTION 5 : Phases of ChangeThe work of Kurt Lewin on phases of planned change is oft quoted and still very relevant today. He says that the 3 phases are â€Å"Unfreezing†, â€Å"Changing† and â€Å"Refreezing† and the leader should be sensitive in each of these phases (Lewin, 1952). â€Å"Unfreezing† or preparation phase prepares the ground for change. Leaders will have convinced themselves of a need for change using the Formula for Change. What they have to do now is to enable his followers to feel the same need and reduce resistance to change.French, et al, (2011) referred to this phase as similar to â€Å"generating energy for transformation† in Miles†™ (1997) framework for planned organizational change leadership. Lewin’s unfreezing phase also includes what Miles refers to as â€Å"Developing a vision of the future†. The leader needs to communicate this  vision effectively to his followers and ensure buy-in for his changes to succeed. The 8-stage process of change by Kotter (1996) lists the first 4 stages as : †¢Establishing a Sense of Urgency†¢Creating a Guiding Coalition †¢Developing a Vision and Strategy †¢Communicating the Change VisionKotter refers to these 4 stages as â€Å"defrosting† which essentially means unfreezing. He says that managers sometimes skip these 4 stages and go headlong into restructuring or downsizing and eventually face insurmountable roadblocks or change that is not sustainable, that is, change that will not stick. The next phase of change, â€Å"Changing†, according to Lewin (1952), refers to the nitty-gritty nuts and bolts of change like re-structur ing, re-organisation, reshaping culture, training and development to build competencies required to fulfil the new vision. According to Miles (1997), this is referred to as â€Å"aligning the internal context†. Kotter (1996), on the other hand, splits this phase into 3 more stages in his 8-stage process of creating major change: †¢Empowering Broad-based Action†¢Generating Short-term Wins †¢Consolidating Gains and Producing more ChangeLewin’s (1952) final phase, â€Å"Refreezing†, is where leaders evaluate results and either makes modifications to improve results from the change or reinforce outcomes for achieving change objectives. The purpose of refreezing is so that change can be permanent and will â€Å"stick†. Miles refers to this as â€Å"Creating a transformation process architecture† which involves having feedback and communication mechanisms, support, education mechanisms and coordination mechanisms. This stage coincides with Kotter’s final stage in his 8-stage process called â€Å"Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture†.SECTION 6 : Leadership and Organisational ChangeSetting direction, giving inspiration and ensuring that lasting change is implemented organisation-wide is a key role that all leaders play. Good leadership and management of change is a critical ingredient in organisational change because it is essentially a people issue and human nature is such that its first instinct is to resist change (Coburn, 2006). Lack of effort, too great a change over too short a time and emphasis on top management rather than engaging lower levels are key reasons for failure to execute change programmes (Manikandan, 2010).It is critical to understand that organizations consist of complex human interactions such that all intended change needs to be handled with sensitivity. Change initiatives fail not because of the lack of intelligent leaders or noble causes but due to the lack of emotional buy-in from stakeholders. So leaders of change need to have skills and competencies to ensure successful change initiatives. Buchanan & Boddy (1992) grouped 15 core competencies and skills into 5 clusters:Diagram 1 : Buchanan & Bodd’s Clustering of Skills and Competencies Buchanan & Boddy (1992) grouped the skills and competencies into clusters of activities. However, upon analysis, they can be grouped into 2 broad categories; Competencies & Attributes of good leaders and Communication & EQ Skills of good leaders. This is illustrated in the diagram below.Diagram 2 : Grouping Skills into Competencies and Skills Competencies & AttributesA successful leader must be sensitive to his environment, including but not limited to being aware of market conditions, intra-company politics, conflicting goals of different departments, how the sum of parts in an organisation works together to achieve its goals (helicopter viewpoint) and who the power brokers are within the organisation. Having thi s competency will enable the change leader to appraise the status quo and determine the gap that needs to be closed in order to reach the new vision. Hence, the leader’s comprehension and clarity of his vision will be enhanced. â€Å"Flexibility† and â€Å"Tolerance of ambiguity† might well be two sides of the same coin. Not all changes will go according to plan nor all reactions to change, especially resistance, are predictable.Hence, a good leader will have a fair amount of tolerance of the unknown and in exhibiting this, be flexible enough to modify his change plans to reach his objectives and to minimise resistance to change. Finally, the leader must have enthusiasm as he is the change agent. He is the champion of that change and if he cannot  show that he believes in it and is behind it 100%, he will not be able to get buy-in for it. Communication & EQ SkillsThe skills listed in this box are all related to skills in effective communications but tempered w ith a good measure of emotional quotient (EQ). As discussed above, the challenges in change management are mainly found in the management of people. Hence, EQ in communication is key to success. Effective communication where the message is conveyed accurately from the sender to the receiver is a basic requirement of any leader. However for a change leader, communicating while exercising EQ will make the message more acceptable to the recipient and hence enhance successful change.This is especially true when a leader wants to ‘sell’ the idea of change or when he ‘negotiates’ for a win-win solution to effect changes. He has to use all his ‘influence’ and exhibit charismatic leadership to win the support of his colleagues and subordinates. How he does this may be through the use of ‘motivation’. Using his EQ, the leader will be able to empathise with his subordinates and understand their fears and concerns know what motivates them and use this in his effort to garner support or reduce resistance.The leader needs to use his ‘networking’ skills to access resources within and outside the company in order to implement his change plan. One must not forget that in transformational change, everyone and every department in an organisation will be affected. Hence the leader cannot work in isolation. Finally, using ‘teambuilding’ skills, the leader can build a cohesive force to successfully implement all the changes that the organisation wants to put in place and make those changes stick or in the words of Lewin (1983), â€Å"Refreeze†.SECTION 7 : ConclusionFor over a century, behavioural scientists, psychologists and even sociologists have studied leadership, trying to define, explain and even predict situations when leadership qualities and attributes will be displayed. They have tried to explain if leadership is inborn or a result of the external environment. Whether it is inherent in p ersonality or whether it can be learnt and developed. Contemporary theorists conclude that although certain traits that are inborn are those found in great  leaders, other attributes of good leadership can indeed be developed.Organisational change, inescapable as it were, is a challenge for leaders. Leaders need to prepare the ground and communicate the changes needed to move the organisation forward (Unfreeze), make the changes with sensitivity and exercise EQ (Change) and get buy-in and support for the changes to make them stick (Refreeze). To execute change plans, leaders need to have the communication skills, EQ, competencies and attributes required for transformational change.

Globalization and sport especially world cup in Qatar 2022 Research Paper

Globalization and sport especially world cup in Qatar 2022 - Research Paper Example It would not be wrong to say that with the intensive mediatization of sports and the technology facilitated broadcast of sports across nations and cultures, sports has emerged to be a common platform of interest and a vehicle for the exchange of values and political influences (Grundy 71). In the light of this fact, one simple can not underestimate the links existent between sports and the facilitation of democracy in today’s globalized world (Jay 51). Qatar being a Gulf nation, the impact of sports and globalization on the nation needs to be considered in the light of the emerging global network of interdependencies and influences and the still fresh Arab Spring. This approach gets even more imperative when one accommodates the fact that Qatar happens to be the host of 2022 FIFA World Cup. Globalization, Sports and Democracy- A Literature Review Globalization is a process that happens to be complex and controversial in its ramifications. Globalization has not only enhanced in terstate interdependencies, but also given way to a range of changes in the world (Mott IV 119). There is no denying the fact that democracy and globalization happen to be two of the most profound developments of the contemporary age. Globalization has led to the advent of democracy in many nations. Thereby one is many a time tempted to believe in the premise that globalization and democracy happen to be interrelated and symbiotic and one favors and promotes the other (Kuper 116). It could certainly be believed if one takes into consideration the opening up of economies and the commensurate democratization of the nations of Eastern and Central Europe after the fall of communism (Volten 66). One may readily believe in the veracity of this premise if one considers the opening up of the Latin American nations with the unraveling of the wave of democratization in the 70s (Harrison 166). The international transactions that define globalization do tend to benefit the societies as a whole, it is logical to assume that democracy that makes the political class more accountable to people is a sure shot way to remove the impediments that hinder such transactions. Also, one simply could not shy away from the fact that there exists a positive correlation between the eventual objectives of globalization and the socio-political environment facilitated by democracy (Ringen 262). The exchange of goods and services stimulated by globalization is invariably accompanied by the exchange and sharing of ideas and a sharing of ideas does make the societies politically more comparative and competitive (Henry & Springborg 16). Thereby globalization is indeed poised to pose much of a challenge to the nations that are traditionally non-democratic or autocratic (Archibugi 159). When one considers the political unrest unraveling in the Gulf in the wake of the Arab Spring, one is bound to assume that the influx of ideas in the hitherto closed societies and political systems has indeed motiv ated people to be politically more aspiring and has facilitated them with the courage to stand against autocratic regimes (Laqueur 175). Thereby such political developments inspire one to acknowledge that

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Research Paper on Qatar Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

On Qatar - Research Paper Example English speakers tend to include the â€Å"t† in the second syllable of the name, which is a tension of sort that mirrors the complication political tension between the native Arabs and the foreign Western powers such as the British Empire. Today, Qatar is a relatively well-developed, progressive-looking Arab state that has much in common with the West, but still retains many of the traditions and ethnic identities that define it as an Islamic monarchy. Each of the distinct aspects of Qatar, including its geography and political structure, are deserving of a closer look for anyone trying to understand the country better. In terms of the country’s location, Qatar is a small state that shares its own border with Saudi Arabia. The country sits on the northeastern corner of its much larger neighbor on a peninsula that juts out into the Persian Gulf. Across the Persian Gulf from Qatar lies Iran, and across a narrow strait in the Gulf lies the island nation of Bahrain. Relatively close to Qatar and its neighbor Saudi Arabia is the United Arab Emirates. This location as a peninsula proximate to Saudi Arabia does not pose a political threat to the tiny nation of Qatar, but instead has proven to be an advantage for Qatar’s growth. For instance, during the Persian Gulf War, Qatar military forces joined the coalition against Iraq in stabilizing the Middle East. Within its space, Qatar has excelled and has built favorable relations with its neighbors. Geographically, Qatar is not only small but also flat. As was mentioned previously, Qatar is a small nation based on a peninsula jutting out from neighboring Saudi Arabia. The peninsula is just about 100 miles (or 160 km) in length, which is roughly the same length as Delaware. Much of that length consists of barren plain covered with sand, without much in terms of high fixtures or rock faces. One interesting feature of Qatar

Saturday, July 27, 2019

What is the relationship between the services provided by HR managers Essay

What is the relationship between the services provided by HR managers and other leaders with regards to the levels of staff commitment - Essay Example Basically, the purpose of this quantitative, descriptive nature of research is to explore the relationship between critical dimensions between HR services provided and employee retention by surveying 1000 members from different branches in a financial institution based in Doha in the State of Qatar. The study also aims at assessing the available information about human resource practices, especially the focus is on how effectively the leaders can retain the employees through devising effective techniques that can be utilized, the role of HR personnel in improving employee commitment as an important objective of this study. The study also identifies the limitations of the leaders in their approach of suggesting improvement. The independent variable will be the job satisfaction and thus the retention of the employees, while this will be tested against several dependent variables such as (a) wages and bonuses (b) recognition on the job (c) teamwork and (d) availability of training, givi ng responsibility to the employees, flexibility of the leaders while dealing with his subordinates and similar variables. Chapter two specifically deals with reviewing of published literature that is relevant to the study which influenced the careful selection of the method of data collection to be implemented in the study.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Coaching and mentoring for leadership and Management; Evaluative Essay

Coaching and mentoring for leadership and Management; Evaluative report - The role of coaching and mentoring in organisational development and knowledge management - Essay Example ing those individual who tend to be more experienced in a particular field along with relatively less knowledgeable individuals who do not have much knowledge in the similar field (National College for School Leadership, 2010). The main task of a manager is to get results through people as well as other resources. Since most of the industries are becoming more reliant upon knowledge as well as service, people as well as their skill and performance are a top managerial concern. Companies possess greater interest in the capabilities of their employees that they endeavour to develop by means of formal and on-the-job training and progressive job assignments. They further expect managers as well as supervisors to develop employee capacity by means of coaching and mentoring. The main objective of the report is to identify whether or not the adoption of coaching and mentoring system can be utilised in order to train the staffs required to occupy the highly skilled positions that organisations might find it increasingly difficult to fill in the near future. The report will further attempt at offering numerous definitions regarding what coaching and mentoring are and how they must be utilised as part of the organisations knowledge management system. The costs as well as benefits associated to the organisation in introducing such systems will also be highlighted. Furthermore, the report’s objective will be to outline how organisations can deliver high quality coaching and mentoring to the employees and the key performance indicators that organisations can utilise to judge the ongoing success of such a system. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) views mentoring as a development of abilities as well as potentials in the role to be played by an individual rather than developing their performance and skills. It can be comprehended as specific learning along with development interference that can be utilised in a wide way however in a specific situation

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Legal Environment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Legal Environment - Essay Example When multinational companies operate in countries that do not have high standards, they may be in conflict with both the laws of the host and those applied at home, albeit unnoticed. International operations involve objectives to set high standards of services or goods produced while maintaining corporate responsibility. However, conflicts usually arise, as no clear balance can be arrived at. For instance, US companies such as Pepsi, American Standard and Nestle were punished din China for discharging substandard wastewater into rivers in China (Simone, 2000). This is in spite of their knowledge the US law which strictly condemns such acts (Simone, 2000). It can be said that the human resource manager of the companies involved did not measure up to the task of corporate responsibility. Nevertheless, most US companies attract Americans to work in their foreign subsidiaries, which is in line with the Employment laws the US. This is point however deserves some criticism in that the local people of the countries in which US companies operate are denied employment opportunities. From the two points of view above, one can surmise that US multinational corporations enforce US laws when doing is for their benefit. On the other hand, there is a tendency to violate the US laws if it is evident that the host country is not in a position to raise a red flag. Multinational corporations have to deal with th... If the laws are in dissonance then it becomes difficult for a company to have a clear direction on which ones to adopt. It is interesting that most international investments are usually done in developing countries where competition is law and resources are in plenty. However, such countries usually lack unclear laws standards, which make it difficult for them to appraise activities of the companies. The large companies therefore develop a "big boy" syndrome and use their resources to influence the host counties. On the other hand, if the country that the multinational corporation operates in is of equal or near equal status, the conflicts are solved based on sound judgment. For instance, the UK rejected Dasani, a brand of mineral water produced by a US company, coca cola after it was found to contain bromate, a possible carcinogen (LOHAS Journal Weekly). The allegation forced Coca cola to withdraw the brand from UK. Such a conflict illustrates how some countries all over the world may be ignorantly accepting fake or sub standard products. Nevertheless, it is evident that divergence between country laws should not be so wide since some laws are actually modifications of others. In a case such as the one mentioned above, the multinational corporation has no option but to conform to the laws of the country in which it operates. To summarize it all foreign companies have to submit to the laws of the local country or withdraw their operations. My opinion is that a foreign company should not impose new laws to the country in which it operates. Therefore, such conflicts are justified since they aim at maintaining good standards of products, whether produced by local companies or multinational

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Public Awareness on COPD Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Public Awareness on COPD - Research Paper Example The paper will further suggest new awareness programs that should be put in place for effective public awareness of the disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a collection of illnesses characterized by impediment of airflow that can be linked with breathing-related symptoms for instance expectoration, unceasing cough, panting and exertional dyspnea. It is supposedly the fourth principal cause of death in the United States and can occur with or without considerable physical destruction or signs. Conversely, the disease is frequently a silent and unrecognized disorder, mostly in its premature stages (Mannino et al, 2002). Sutherland and Cherniack (2004) also assert that COPD is a condition of continuous airflow limitation caused by lung parenchyma and persistent irritation of the airways. An increased decline in the forced expiratory volume from the standard rate in grown-ups over 30 years of age of nearly 30 ml per year to almost 60 ml per year is the prime physiological abnormality in this is disease. The disease course starts with an asymptomatic stage in which lung function worsens without associated signs. When the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) has dropped to around 50 percent of the predicted standard value, the subsequent symptomatic stage occurs but it can vary. Since extensive deterioration in airflow has already taken place by the time most patients present with symptoms, it is sound to conclude that the extent of airflow limitation is only one of many factors that determine the onset of symptoms. An extra physiological abnormality that is usually seen in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is hyperinflation, which arises at rest and deteriorates with exercise. It is marked mainly by an increase in the functional residual capacity, placing the respiratory muscles at a mechanical disadvantage, thus raising the work of breathing and lowering exercise tolerance. Other physiological abnormalities